D. H. Donelson and J. T. Wilson. Copyright 1960 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
An unbleached, commercially milled 48% extraction soft wheat flour was fractionated by a batter method into water-solubles, gluten, starch tailings, and prime starch. Flour blends using various proportions of the fractions were prepared and bleached. White layer cakes were baked using a lean formulation. A batter-mixing schedule incorporating a preliminary doughing step was necessary in order to obtain layers comparable in volume and internal structure to cakes baked from the parent flour. The baking quality of these reconstituted flours appeared to be strongly influenced by their composition. By means of a central composite statistical design, a multiple regression equation was derived relating layer volume to the relative proportions of the fractions making up the flours. Because of interaction, responses of fractions varied significantly at different concentrations of the fractions. It was found that, in general, the water-soluble fraction tended to decrease cake volume, although not greatly, and that tailings had a marked effect in increasing volume and improving internal appearance. Small changes of concentration of gluten or of prime starch above or below the normal amounts had little effect on volume, but much greater or smaller than normal concentrations of either resulted in much smaller cakes. It was concluded that the relative proportions or balance of flour components conditioned the contribution to cake structure of each component and had a significant effect upon the quality of the cake.