Cereal Chem 46:14 - 21. | VIEW
Effect of Lysine Fortification on Quality of Chapatties and Yeast Bread.
R. H. Matthews, G. Richardson, and H. Lichtenstein. Copyright 1969 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Chapatties - unleavened breads typical of India - and yeast-leavened loaf breads were made with attas (long- extraction -wheat flours) of 93 and 85% extraction, respectively. L-Lysine monohydrochloride was added to the attas in amounts of 0.1 to 0.6%, and quality of the finished breads was evaluated. For both types of bread, a taste panel could not detect, in paired comparison tests, differences between flavor of any one of the fortified samples and the control. In general, lysine fortification of attas had a detrimental effect on the puffed volume of chapatties and a beneficial effect on loaf volume of yeast bread. This difference in volume measurement of chapatties was not reflected in the taste panel's evaluations of color and texture. Shear force and compressibility readings of breads indicated an over-all decrease in tenderness and increase in elasticity of bread-crumb texture with increases in level of lysine fortification. Baking of chapatties caused a loss of only about 4% free lysine. For bread, however, the baking process destroyed approximately 25% of added lysine. The longer baking time for bread and the possible complex reaction between the epsilon-amino group of lysine and reducing sugars in the dough, as well as use of lysine as a yeast food, can explain this difference. Results of these tests will aid in determining the feasibility of fortifying wheat with lysine for shipment to developing countries.