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Cereal Chem 46:512 - 517.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Improving Breadmaking Properties with Glycolipids. II. Improving Various Protein-Enriched Products.

Y. Pomeranz, M. D. Shogren, and K. F. Finney. Copyright 1969 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Bread was baked with 8 or 16 g. soy flour, and 8 g. (per 100 g. wheat flour) defatted cottonseed flour, fish protein concentrate, nonfat dry milk, expeller-extracted sesame seed flour, wheat gluten, defatted wheat germ, air-fractionated protein-rich wheat flour, or food-grade Torula yeast. All protein-rich additives substantially lowered loaf volume and impaired crumb grain. Adding 3 g. shortening counteracted partly the deleterious effects of 16 g. soy flour; higher levels had no additional improving effect. Loaf volumes were increased and crumb grain was improved by adding 1.0 to 6.0 g. sucrose tallowate. The loaf volume of bread containing 3.0 to 6.0 g. sucrose tallowate was substantially above that of the control containing no added soy flour. Highest levels of tallowate increased mixing time and impaired rheological properties. Small amounts (0.5 to 1.0 g.) synthetic glycolipids and free lipids (rich in glycolipids) from wheat flour and Briza spicata improved volume and crumb grain of nutritionally improved bread as much as or more than 3 g. shortening. Synthetic glycolipids, but not shortening, rendered commercial wheat gluten functional in breadmaking.

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