Cereal Chem 51:34 - 45. | VIEW
Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Polar Lipids. II. Effect on Quality of Bread and Pasta Products.
M. J. Y. Lin, B. L. D'Appolonia, and V. L. Youngs. Copyright 1974 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Total wheat flour and semolina lipids were fractionated into five fractions by a batch technique using silicic acid. Nonpolar lipids added at the 0.5% level to either the untreated or the petroleum ether-defatted flour caused an increase in farinogram mixing time and mixing tolerance, and a slight decrease in water absorption. Digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) and phospholipids generally showed no pronounced effect on absorption, mixing time, or mixing tolerance of the dough from the untreated flour; however, a reduction in water absorption and mixing time was noted with the addition of DGDG to the defatted flour. Extraction of wheat flour with petroleum ether resulted in bread with reduced loaf volume and poorer crumb and crust characteristics. The baking quality was restored with the addition of any of the five lipid fractions at the 0.5% level, when shortening was present in the bread formula. Without shortening, the baking properties were restored and improved only by the fraction rich in DGDG. The effect of the nonpolar lipids and phospholipids on bread properties baked from the untreated flour containing shortening was small. However, DGDG at 0.4 to 0.6% consistently improved the loaf volume; this was more pronounced without shortening in the bread formula. Extraction of durum semolina with petroleum ether resulted in a higher pasta water absorption and in loss of yellow color in the spaghetti. Addition of 0.6% nonpolar lipids to the defatted semolina restored and slightly improved the spaghetti color. Nonpolar lipids and monogalactosyl diglyceride slightly increased water absorption of the untreated semolina and the firmness of spaghetti while DGDG and phospholipids decreased these factors. In general, neither nonpolar nor polar lipids affected the cooking quality of the spaghetti to any extent.