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Cereal Chem 52:638 - 649.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Protein Enrichment of Cookie Flours with Wheat Gluten and Soy Flour Derivatives.

L. T. Kissell and W. T. Yamazaki. Copyright 1975 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The sugar-snap cookie baking performance of soft red winter (SRW) flour fortified with increasing levels of three vital wheat glutens was compared with results obtained with similar blends using five soy-derived protein concentrates. Cookie spread and top-grain scores were reduced by each supplement at differential rates dependent upon concentration and functionality of the protein source. Reductions in baking quality were least with commercial vital glutens, followed, in order, by laboratory-fractionated SRW gluten, nondispersible soy-protein isolate, modified soy flours, soy-protein concentrate, and dispersible soy-protein isolate. With commercial glutens, cookie-crumb protein (N x 5.7) levels were increased 150% at the point of significant reduction in baking performance, compared with 27% increase with laboratory-fractionated gluten and 10-20% increase with soy derivatives. Lipid extracts from SRW flour, six commercial lecithins from soy, and a commercial safflower lecithin were evaluated at low concentrations as improvers of cookie spread in conjunction with the SRW flour-protein fortified blends. Soy lecithins were most effective, with safflower lecithin equal to, or better than, flour lipids. Maximum crumb protein increases permitted by use of natural surfactants were: 375% with commercial glutens; 83% with laboratory-prepared gluten, and up to 56% with soy derivatives. Satisfactory sugar-snap cookie size, top grain, and internal appearance were maintained.

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