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Cereal Chem 53:636 - 642.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Studies on the Breadmaking Properties of Wheat-Flour Nonpolar Lipids.

V. A. DeStefanis and J. G. Ponte, Jr. Copyright 1976 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Total lipids of a commercial wheat flour were separated into polar and nonpolar fractions. When added at the dough stage, the nonpolar lipids were detrimental in baking. Nonpolar lipids were fractionated into steryl esters, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and diglycerides, each of which was then tested in three dough systems: 1) defatted flour, 2) intact flour, and 3) intact flour with 3% lard. When added to either the defatted or intact flour, the deleterious effects were caused by the free fatty acids. However, in the presence of 3% lard the ill effects were not as evident as in the other two systems. Within the fatty acids class, detrimental effects in bread were directly related to linoleic acid. Complementary studies showed that the free fatty acids both increased the peak viscosity and delayed the peak time of starch during the gelatinization cycle.

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