Cereal Chem 54:25 - 41. | VIEW
Fiber in Breadmaking---Effects on Functional Properties.
Y. Pomeranz, M. D. Shogren, K. F. Finney, and D. B. Bechtel. Copyright 1977 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Bread was baked from wheat flour with up to 15% of the flour replaced by seven celluloses, four wheat brans, or two oat hulls. Adding 15% oat hulls somewhat reduced water absorption; bran increased absorption about 4%; celluloses increased absorption about 10%. Oat hulls increased mixing times little, celluloses increased them considerably, and wheat bran had no consistent effect. Adding up to 5% fiber materials decreased loaf volume to an extent expected from dilution of functional gluten proteins. At levels above 7%, fiber materials decreased loaf volume much more than expected from dilution of gluten. The large decrease resulted from lowered gas retention rather than unsatisfactory gas production. Effects of the fiber materials on bread crumb texture were confirmed by visual observations, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Oat hulls imparted to bread an objectionable gritty texture; the celluloses modified bread taste and mouthfeel little; bran modified the taste and mouthfeel somewhat but the modification was not objectionable. Overall effects on color from added fiber materials were smallest for the celluloses and largest for bran. Bran decreased bread softness more than celluloses did; oat hulls softened bread somewhat.