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Cereal Chem 55:373 - 382.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Microscopic Evaluation of Bread Fortified with Concentrated Plant Proteins.

S. E. Fleming and F. W. Sosulski. Copyright 1978 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Bread was baked from wheat flour with up to 2% of the flour replaced by vital gluten and 17% of the flour replaced by concentrated plant proteins, including soy flour, sunflower concentrate, fababean concentrate, and field pea concentrate. Previous studies showed that the supplemented breads showed decreased loaf volumes, compact or coarse crumb grains, and firm textures that were resistant to compression. Samples of these breads were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The supplemental proteins were shown to disrupt the well-defined protein-starch complex observed in the wheat flour bread. In addition, small pores were observed in the thick cell walls of the supplemented breads, and these pores may allow gases to escape from the structure during baking.

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