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Cereal Chem 56:533 - 536.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Effects of Protein Supplements on Carbonyl Compounds and Flavor in Bread.

F. Sosulski and R. M. Mahmoud. Copyright 1979 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The contents of volatile carbonyl compounds were determined in legume and oilseed flours and protein concentrates, and in protein-supplemented doughs and breads. 2-Propane, 2-butanone, 3-methylbutanal, and hexanal were tentatively identified as the principal carbonyl compounds in soy flour and sunflower, fababean, and field pea protein concentrates while large quantities of ethanal also appeared in the fermented doughs. Bread crumbs and crusts contained high levels of the same five carbonyl compounds plus furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, gernerally in higher concentrations than the all-wheat control. The flavor ratings for the protein-supplemented breads decreased with increasing contents of total carbonyl compounds and ranked the products in the general order of wheat greater than sunflower greater than soy = fababean greater than field pea.

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