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Cereal Chem 59:392 - 395.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Optimization of the Fat-Emulsifier System and the Gum-Egg White-Water System for a Laboratory-Scale Single-Stage Cake Mix.

C. C. Lee and R. C. Hoseney. Copyright 1982 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Several techniques for measuring cake batter viscosity were evaluated. A modification of the amylograph procedure gave the most reproducible results. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the formulation of single-stage cake mixes for white layer cakes. A study having three variables (shortening, propylene glycol monostearate, and mono- and diglycerides) at five levels was used to optimize the fat- surfactant system. A second response surface methodology study, also with three variables at five levels, was used to optimize the xanthan gum, egg whites, and water levels. Data were obtained for batter viscosity, batter specific gravity, cake volume, contour, shrinkage, and internal score. Batter specific gravity, viscosity, and cake crumb grain were all highly correlated and affected mainly by the level of propylene glycol monostearate. Optimum values for the fat-emulsifier system were 25% shortening, 4% propylene glycol monostearate, and 3% mono- and diglycerides. Xanthan increased viscosity and decreased shrinkage. Cake volume increased when xanthan level was increased and water level was decreased.

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