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Cereal Chem 60:19 - 23.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Development and "Undevelopment" of Wheat Dough by Mixing: Physicochemical Studies.

O. Paredes-Lopez and W. Bushuk. Copyright 1983 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The changes in flour proteins during dough development and undevelopment by mixing were investigated using three flours selected to represent very strong, strong, and medium dough mixing strengths. As judged by the loaf volume and other loaf properties, the negative effect of undevelopment on bread quality was more pronounced for stronger flours. When undeveloped doughs were redeveloped by mixing at higher speeds, the strongest flour was the only one that increased in loaf volume in relation to that of the optimally developed dough while maintaining overall organoleptic quality of the loaf. Undevelopment produced a decrease in the amount of acetic acid-extractable protein. Subsequent remixing at higher speed reversed this extractability. The amounts of soluble glutenin and insoluble residue protein, obtained by the modified Osborne procedure, were related to the energy (work) input during dough mixing. Glutenin increased, and residue protein decreased with increasing energy. Undevelopment slowed the change of protein solubility with work input. This effect was more evident for the two stronger flours. Sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns showed that the unreduced glutenin fraction of underdeveloped doughs (premixing and undermixing stages) contained a number of low molecular weight subunits that entered the gel on electrophoresis. These subunits were not present in the patterns of the analogous fraction from developed doughs. Presumably, these units associate during development to form aggregates extractable with the solvent used but too large to enter the gel. Undevelopment caused an increase in the intensity of some of the bands in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of reduced glutenins.

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