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Cereal Chem 63:47-51   |  VIEW ARTICLE
Effects of Ingredients on Iron Solubility and Chemical State in Experimental Breads.

R. S. Kadan and G. M. Ziegler, Jr. Copyright 1986 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Experimental white breads fortified with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O), ferric sodium pyrohosphate, electrolytic iron, and other breadmaking ingredients at two (usage) levels, were baked and analyzed for iron solubility and chemical state in aqueous slurry and in simulated stomach and duodenum conditions. The results showed that iron distribution was affected by the medium, amount, and type of ingredients in the bread. Besides the iron sources, the most active ingredients affecting the soluble iron were: shortening, NaCl, and nonfat dry milk in aqueous slurry; shortening and sugar in the stomach conditions; and yeast and NaCl in the simulated duodenum. Under duodenum conditions, soluble iron was decreased by high NaCl level s and increased by high yeast levels, indicating that a high level of NaCl in bread may decrease and high yeast levels may increase iron bioavailability in vivo. Further in vitro studies for estimating iron bioavailability confirmed the effects of high NaCl and yeast levels.

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