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Cereal Chem 64:343-348   |  VIEW ARTICLE

Chemical Leavening: Effect of pH and Certain Ions on Breadmaking Properties.

J. T. Holmes and R. C. Hoseney. Copyright 1987 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

When a combination of yeast and chemical leavening was used in bread, yeast was tolerant to moderate changes in pH but its gassing abilities were impaired when subjected to high pH (greater than or equal to 9.7). At the pH encountered in dough containing NaHCO (approximately 6.75), the yeast was about 90% as active as control dough (pH 5.5). A laboratory-scale, remixing scheme was developed to incorporate chemical leavening into yeasted doughs. Baking results indicated that the major factor affecting loaf volume was not pH, but rather the salts produced from the leavening reaction. Specific ions were detrimental to loaf volume. A mixograph study characterized the effect of ions on the mixing curve, and results corresponded to the anionic lyotropic series. A baking study of selected ions of the anionic lyotropic series supported the mixograph results.

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