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Cereal Chem 67:355-360   |  VIEW ARTICLE

Effects of Heat and Water Transport on the Bagel-Making Process: Conventional and Microwave Baking.

S. L. Umbach, E. A. Davis, and J. Gordon. Copyright 1990 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Bagels were baked by conventional forced-air (CVFA) and microwave heating methods after the boiling step. Differences in temperature histories and water loss rates for bagels heated by the two modes of heating were found. The bagel structure was examined by scanning electron microscopy after boiling and compared with structures observed in the unheated dough. Starch granules appeared most changed near the surface and least changed near the center of the bagel ring. Water was absorbed in the surface area of the boiled bagel but the 2H relaxation rates were not different from the dough. The bagel structure examined by microscopy after baking showed differences in cell structure matrix development and starch swelling as a function of location or heating method. Differences were found in moisture content in the sampled areas within and between heating methods, however 2H R1 values were not different above 34.1% moisture content.

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