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Cereal Chem 69:495-501   |  VIEW ARTICLE

Bread Crumb Amylograph Studies. I. Effects of Storage Time, Shortening, Flour Lipids, and Surfactants.

A. Xu, O. K. Chung, and J. G. Ponte, Jr.. Copyright 1992 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Sodium stearoyl lactylate, sucrose monopalmitate, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, monoglycerides, and petroleum ether-extracted flour lipds were added to a bread formula at the 0.5% level to make breads with and without shortening. Bread crumb compressibility was measured after one, two, and five days of storage at room temperature, and the crumbs were then used for amylograph studies. Compressibility increased with storage length and decreased with crumb moisture content and loaf volume. Amylograph readings of breads made with different additives were significantly different. Storage time of the bread did not significantly affect the crumb amylogram readings except, in some breads, the height of the plateau before the viscosity onset. The plateau was formed by progressive lowering of the initial viscosity, presumably caused by amylopectin retrogradation in bread crumb over the storage time. Amylograph readings of bread crumb were significantly correlated with crumb firmness. Storage days, loaf volume, and cooling-end or holding-end viscosity in the crumb amylogram were included in the best-fitting regression equations of crumb firmness. The relation of amylograph readings to crumb compressibility was attributed to effects of lipid materials on both amylograph readings and crumb compressibility.

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