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Cereal Chem 69:303-309   |  VIEW ARTICLE

Water Loss and Structure Development in Model Cake Systems Heated by Microwave and Convection Methods.

L. L. P. Lambert, J. Gordon, and E. A. Davis. Copyright 1992 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

Dynamic water loss rates, temperature profiles, and final structure of batters heated by microwave and convection methods were evaluated for three leavening conditions. Temperature gradients developed within the cake systems early in the microwave-heating process. Water loss rates increased during heating with a change in the slope of the water loss rate versus temperature curves occurring over the temperature range associated with starch and protein transformations. Only small temperature gradients were present in convection-heated cakes. Water loss rates for convection-heated batters sequentially increased initially, entered a short constant rate period, and increased rapidly until the final constant rate period was reached. The dependence of water loss rates on uniformity of structural development was demonstrated for both heating methods. Differences between systems made without and with chemical leavening were greater than differences between chemical leavening treatments.

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