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Cereal Chem 69:334-337   |  VIEW ARTICLE

Steamed Bread. IV. Negative Steamer-Spring of Strong Flours.

G. L. Rubenthaler, Y. Pomeranz, and M. L. Huang. Copyright 1992 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The steamed-breadmaking characteristics of flours differing in inherent protein strength and content were studied, with a particular focus on the retention of volume during the steaming process. The response was coined steamer-spring, analogous to oven-spring in pan bread baking. A strong negative corelation (r = - 0.86) was observed between proof height and height after steaming. The strong gluten flours (with large proof heights) collapsed in the steamer or immediately upon removal, whereas the soft wheat and weaker hard wheat flours maintained their proof height or yielded a significant steamer-spring. A negative correlation (r = -0.76) between protein content and steamed bread volume was observed among hard red spring wheats, whereas soft white, soft red, and club wheat flours were positively correlated with protein (r = 0.78, 0.86, and 0 .60, respectively). Strong flours, particularly from high-protein hard wheats, are unsuitable for steamed bread. Soft wheat flours below 9.5% protein are undesirable for high-quality steamed bread. Flours that contain about 10-11% protein and are of medium to low strength are best suited for steamed bread.

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