Cereal Chem 72:578-582 |
Effect of Certain Surfactants on the Starch in Bread.
R. R. Roach and R. C. Hoseney. Copyright 1995 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Addition of Tristearin (C18TG) improved loaf volume in a manner similar to that of shortening. Triolein (C18'TG), when used to replace shortening in the breadmaking formula, improved volume only slightly, probably because less solid fat was present. Using the hydrated form of monoglycerides (MG) was more effective than blending the MG with the flour in a high-speed mixer or adding them as is. Light micrographs of starch isolated from bread showed that MG or sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) added to the formula reduced the swelling of starch, whereas shortening did not. If the effect of MG on crumb firmness relates to their effect on starch swelling, then the mechanism of softening for MG is different than that for shortening. The SSL had a somewhat different effect in this limited water system than it had in an excess water system. The effect appeared to be similar to that in the excess water system heated to a lower temperature. Studies with bread made from defatted flour showed that MG reduced crumb firmness, whereas shortening did not. This supports the idea that the mechanisms by which these two lipids reduce crumb firmness are different.