DOI: 10.1094/CFW-51-0023 |
Utilization of Diverse Hulless Barley Properties To Maximize Food Product Quality
N. Ames (1), C. Rhymer (1), B. Rossnagel (2), M. Therrien (3), D. Ryland (1), S. Dua (4), and K. Ross (1). (1) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. (2) University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. (3) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon, MB, Canada. (4) University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Cereal Foods World 51(1):23-28.
Given the potential health benefits and unique variability associated with specific barley genotypes, barley products have the ability to provide consumers with a variety of high-fiber, low glycemic-index foods. This research evaluated the utilization of barley genotypes with diverse characteristics in three types of food systems. The barley genotypes studied varied in functional and nutritional characteristics, such as beta-glucan content and viscosity, starch composition and content, protein, and total dietary fiber. Initial experimentation revealed that milled and blended barley flour was well suited to the type of dough and baked-product system used with tortillas. Genotype significantly affected the texture, appearance, and processing quality of fresh and frozen tortillas made from 100% barley flour and water. Principal component analysis of the chemical and physical attributes of approximately 25 Canadian barley genotypes (cultivars and breeding lines) indicated a relationship between beta-glucan content and increased tortilla rollability, reduced chewiness, and reduced hardness. Total starch and amylose contents were correlated with greater chewiness and increased hardness. Freezing had little effect on tortilla texture or beta-glucan, but color was affected to varying degrees depending on genotype. Addition of concentrated barley bran extracts to increase the nutritional benefits of the tortillas resulted in positive textural attributes depending on which barley genotype was used for the base flour. Selected genotypes with specific starch properties, milling characteristics, and colors were identified for the production of high-fiber tortillas with optimized quality, as measured by both sensory and instrumental techniques. Genotype differences were also observed for response to heat and moisture treatments in the development of novel whole-grain barley products. These specialized infrared heat treatments influenced RVA viscosity, beta-glucan acid extract viscosity, water absorption, and product texture to varying degrees depending on genotype. Content, viscosity, and water extractability of beta-glucan in various barley fractions and genotypes also had implications for development of barley beverages. Genotype, milling fraction, and heat treatment all affected beta-glucan extractability and viscosity.