Effect of Dough Water Content and Mixing Conditions on Energy Imparted to Dough and Bread Quality
C. A. Osella, H. D. Sánchez, and M. A. De La Torre. Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 266 - 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina. Cereal Foods World 52(2):70-73.
This study explores the influence of water content, mixing speed, and mixing time on energy imparted to dough and on specific volumes and bake scores of the resulting pan breads made with flours of different qualities. Responses measured were dough work input (Y(1)), specific volume of bread (Y(2)), and bake score (Y(3)) while the variables chosen were water added (X(1)), mixing speed (X(2)), and mixing time (X(3)). Water added ranged between 59.7 and 62.7 %, mixing speed between 20 and 100 rpm, and mixing time between 2 and 12 min. Dough work input was strongly correlated with all variables chosen for this study, while specific volume and bake score had only a high statistical significance with respect to mixing speed (X(2)) and mixing time (X(3)). The maximum value for Y(2) (5.2 cm(^3)/g) resulted when X(2) = 90 rpm and X(3) = 8 min. This indicates that better products are obtained with 720 mixer blade revolutions; this is a critical factor for optimal dough development and then for obtaining a good crumb grain. Finally, bread quality can be improved by increasing mixer blade revolutions up to values in the range of 700–800, corresponding to a dough work input of ~40 kJ/kg.