Effects of Hand Pounding, Abrasive Decortication–Hammer Milling, Roller Milling, and Sorghum Type on Sorghum Meal Extraction and Quality
M. M. Kebakile (1,2), L. W. Rooney (3), and J. R. N. Taylor (1). (1) University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. (2) National Food Technology Research Centre, Kanye, Botswana. (3) Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Cereal Foods World 52(3):129-137.
Twelve sorghum types with diverse physicochemical properties were milled using two-stage roller milling (RM), abrasive decortication–hammer milling (ADHM), and hand pounding (HP), and the effects on meal extraction and quality were evaluated. Grain hardness correlated significantly with extraction rate for ADHM and HP but not for RM. Pericarp thickness and whole-grain oil content were significantly correlated with meal purity for RM and ADHM. RM gave the darkest meal, followed by HP. Grain weathering significantly affected extraction rate for ADHM but not for RM and HP. RM produced fine meals with slightly more ash and oil and gave higher protein and higher meal extraction (836 compared to 757 g kg(^–1)) than ADHM. HP produced coarser meals with the lowest ash and oil contents but gave the lowest extraction rates (742 g kg(^–1)). Overall, RM seems more advantageous than ADHM and HP for sorghum milling because of its much higher extraction rate and production throughput.