Copassengers of Dietary Fiber in Whole Grain Rye and Oats Compared with Wheat and Other Cereals
H. N. Lærke and K. E. Bach Knudsen. Department of Animal Health and Bioscience, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark. Cereal Foods World 56(2):65-69.
Along with dietary fiber, the majority of vitamins and minerals, as well as a range of sterols, phenolics, and other bioactive substances, are found in the germ, bran fraction, and outermost layer of the endosperm. The content of these copassengers is significantly reduced in flour with a low extraction rate compared with whole grain flour. Hence, milling and separating bran from the inner endosperm reduce the beneficial fiber content, as well as a range of important nutrients and bioactive substances that may have potential health benefits. Oats and rye, which are part of the culinary tradition in Northern Europe, contain bioactive substances that are either unique (as avenanthramides in oats) or present in much higher levels (such as lignans in rye) than in wheat. Refining methods and emerging technologies are constantly leading to the discovery of new components.