Cereal Foods World, Vol. 65, No. 2
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Emerging Crops with Enhanced Ecosystem Services: Progress in Breeding and Processing for Food Use
Catrin Tyl,1 Lee DeHaan,2 Katherine Frels,3 Prabin Bajgain,3 M. David Marks,4 and James A. Anderson3
1 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, U.S.A. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/catrin-tyl-a27bbb69
2 The Land Institute, Salina, KS, U.S.A. Twitter: #perennialgrain and #kernza; Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheLandInstitute
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, U.S.A.
4 Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, U.S.A.
© 2020 Cereals & Grains Association
Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) breeding with food use as the primary goal has been ongoing for about 30 years. Tremendous improvements in grain yield, shatter resistance, and free-threshing ability have been achieved, coupled with considerable but comparably moderate increases in seed size. Larger seeds have prompted flour refinement evaluations, which has led to pronounced improvements in flour and bread properties. Removal of bran reduces a large portion of the insoluble dietary fiber, which allows for better hydration of protein networks and, consequently, results in better bread quality. Certain dough conditioners (ascorbic acid and wheat gluten preparations) are able to further improve either dough or bread, although none of the dough conditioners tested improve both. IWG breeding has entered a new phase by focusing on genomic prediction to accelerate progress. In addition, pennycress is being developed as a new cash cover crop with the potential to serve as a source of oil and protein for food use. Rapid progress has been made in domesticating pennycress from a wild, nonedible plant species to a food crop producing edible oil. To make the seed meal suitable for food applications further improvements are needed, as is further characterization of flavor and protein functionality, before pennycress can be used as a protein source.
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