26-10.02 Experimental Milling: Introduction, Equipment, Sample Preparation, and Tempering
To provide an overview of experimental milling, description of equipment for specific wheat classes, and procedures for sample preparation and wheat tempering.
26-21.02 Experimental Milling—Bühler Method for Hard Wheat
To produce bread and noodle flour from hard wheat using the Bühler laboratory mill.
26-22.01 Experimental Milling—Batch Method for Hard Wheat
To produce bread and noodle flour by short- or long-flow streams from a small sample.
26-30.02 Experimental Milling—Bühler Method for Soft Wheat Short-Extraction Flour
To produce approximately 40% extraction high-quality, low-protein flour of small particle size that is a suitable base to further process into cake flour. Short-extraction flour can be subsequently pin-milled to reduce particle size (optional) and treated with chlorine gas to an approximate pH of 4.8 to produce cake flour.
26-31.01 Experimental Milling—Bühler Method for Soft Wheat Straight-Grade Flour
The method describes a cleanout procedure to produce straight-grade soft wheat flour. Three other procedures are described in Method 26-21.
26-32.01 Experimental Milling—Batch Method for Soft Wheat
To produce the maximum flour yield from a small sample of soft wheat. The flour will have low ash break and low levels of damaged starch.
26-41.01 Experimental Milling—Bühler Method for Durum Wheat
To produce semolina of satisfactory quality for determination of pasta-making quality, using Bühler laboratory mill.
26-42.01 Experimental Milling—Batch Method for Durum Wheat
To produce, by a batch method, semolina of satisfactory quality for determination of pasta-making quality.
26-50.01 Brabender Quadrumat Jr. (Quadruplex) Method
To produce hard or soft wheat flours by a Brabender Quadrumat Jr. laboratory mill. Four fluted rolls are arranged to give three breaks with fixed roll-gap settings. A continuous reel sifter automatically separates ground product into coarse flour and by-product, which includes bran and large endosperm particles.
Procedure is designed to provide flours for physical dough tests (Refs. 1,4,5,9,11). The procedure permits between-laboratory agreement on farinograph dough development time, stability, tolerance index, and valorimeter values if farinographs are adequately standardized (Ref. 2). Procedure is not recommended for determining flour yield potential (Refs. 2,5,9,15,18) but may identify wheats that produce high-ash flours (Refs. 1,4,5,9,11).
Quadrumat Jr. flours have been used for estimating flour protein content, water absorption, bread-baking potential, and alkaline water retention capacity of wheat, and for classifying wheat and rye according to maltose, amylograph, and Hagberg falling number (Refs. 9,11). Flour quality data obtained from Quadrumat Jr. flours are correlated with, but may not be directly comparable to, data for flours from longer milling systems (Ref. 15).
26-70.01 Chopin CD1 Laboratory Mill Method
Experimental milling is a critical function in the operation of a flour mill. Sourcing of wheat suitable for the type of flours to be made is very important for making consistent flour. A number of different experimental mills are available. The Chopin CD1 laboratory mill is equipped with heavy-duty rolls that require no adjustment and can reduce operator variation. The mill can be used as a tool in wheat sourcing by producing flour from wheat to test for milling and rheological quality.
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26-95.01 Experimental Milling: Temper Table
To allow easy calculation of appropriate temper water levels for use in tempering hard, soft, or durum wheats before milling.