57-10.02 Guideline for Pulse Approved Methods
Plant-based ingredients (flours and protein, starch, and fiber fractions), including those made from pulses, are important in the development of new products. Successful inclusion of pulses or their ingredients in food formulations depends on their quality attributes. It is important to measure these quality attributes using standardized and approved methods. Otherwise, results will be inconsistent, making it difficult to compare results from different laboratories. This guideline for approved and standard methods for measuring the quality attributes of pulses will assist food manufacturers in formulating products with the desired quality attributes and to meet regulatory and labeling requirements. This guideline will also allow pulse organizations to facilitate dispute resolution between exporters and customers and aid in the development of consistent marketing information on pulses.
57-12.02 Method for Determining Water Hydration Capacity and Percentage of Unhydrated Seeds of Pulses
This test describes a method to determine the capacity of whole pulse seeds to absorb water and to calculate the percentage of unhydrated seeds. It is applicable to all pulse crops, such as field peas, beans, chickpeas, and lentils. Hydration capacity of pulses is defined as the weight of water that whole seeds absorb after soaking in excess water for 16 hr at room temperature (22 ± 2°C) and is expressed as the weight of water absorbed per 100 g of seeds. Some seeds remain entirely or partially unswollen after 16 hr of soaking at room temperature (see Notes 1 and 2). These are defined as unhydrated seeds. The number of unhydrated seeds is expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds.
57-13.01 Water-Holding Capacity of Pulse Flours and Protein Materials
This test measures water-holding capacity (water hydration or water up-take) determined as the maximum amount of water that 1.000 g of material imbibes and retains under low-speed centrifugation. Since only enough water is added to saturate the sample and not to cause a liquid phase, measurement is not affected by the solubility of the material. This method is applicable to pulse flours (raw and pretreated or preprocessed), pulse protein concentrates, and isolates.
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57-14.01 Firmness of Cooked Pulses
This method determines the firmness of cooked pulses using a texture analyzer. It is applicable to all pulses including beans, chickpeas, lentils, and peas. Firmness of cooked pulses is defined as the maximum force required to shear the cooked pulses and is expressed as the maximum shear force per gram of cooked sample.
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