55 Physical Tests Methods​

55-10.01 Test Weight per Bushel

Test weight is an indication of soundness in grains. In wheat, there is a positive correlation between test weight and flour yield. Test weight is a criterion in grading of grains, especially wheat. Most countries report test weight in kg/hl. In the United States, it is reported as lb/bu. This method determines the weight of dockage-free grain required to fill a level Winchester bushel measure (2150.42 in.3 or 35.24 dm3 [dm3 = liter]).

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55-20.01 Corn Breakage Susceptibility

The breakage susceptibility test determines the potential for kernel fragmentation or breakage of a load or batch of corn subjected to impact forces when transported mechanically. Breakage susceptibility is closely correlated with the degree of stress cracks in the endosperm. The method is applicable to shelled corn containing less than 18% moisture but more especially to corn having moisture content at normal commercial average of 15.5% (wet basis).

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55-30.01 Particle Size Index for Wheat Hardness

Wheat kernel texture has important implications for milling quality and for parameters such as damaged starch, water absorption, and gas production. This method determines relative hardness in all kinds of wheat through establishing the particle size index (PSI) by grinding and sieving. Data obtained on sieving is converted to relative hardness through use of a table.

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55-31.01 Single-Kernel Characterization System for Wheat Kernel Texture

Wheat kernel texture (degree of hardness or softness) is determined by instrumental measurement of the force required to crush wheat kernels. The single-kernel characterization system (SKCS) instrument is calibrated to compute kernel texture by AACC Method 39-70.02 or a modification of Method 55-30.01, using a cyclone (impeller-type) sample mill. This method is applicable to all wheats and hull-less barley.

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55-40.01 Particle Size of Wheat Flour by Laser Instrument

The objective of this method is to determine the particle size distribution of fine powders by a multi-channel laser light-scatter instrument. This method is applicable to wheat flour or similar materials in which maximum particle size is about 175 µm. It also can be used on larger particle size flours using instruments with high upper range. See Note 1.

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55-50.01 Specific Volume

To determine specific volume (1/specific gravity) of pastry creams, cake batters, and icings. The amount of air entrapped during mixing pastry creams, cake batters, and icings, and thus the new volume they displace, is critical to the quality, functionality, and customer acceptance of these products.

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55-60.01 Guideline for Determination of Particle Size Distribution

This guideline applies to the determination of particle size distribution of powdered chemical leavening agents by mechanical sieving. Generally, the particle size distributions for these materials are defined by their respective specifications by using several screens with mesh sizes ranging from 60–325 U.S. Standard (250–44 µm). The intent of this document is to outline a general procedure, provide suggested values for key parameters where appropriate, and highlight controllable sources of error.

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55-99.01 Glossary—Barley

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