54 Physical Dough Tests Methods​

54-10.01 Extensigraph Method, General

The extensigraph records a force-time curve for a test piece of dough stretched until it breaks. Characteristics of force-time curves, or extensigrams, are used to assess the general quality of flour and its response to improving agents.

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54-21.02 Rheological Behavior of Flour by Farinograph: Constant Flour Weight Procedure

The Farinograph measures and records the resistance of dough to mixing. It is used to evaluate the absorption of flours and to determine stability and other characteristics of doughs during mixing. Two different procedures are in common use: the constant flour weight procedure, described herein, and the constant dough weight procedure (Method 54-22.01). Since the two procedures may not yield identical results, the method employed must be specified when absorption and other farinogram values are reported.

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54-22.01 Rheological Behavior of Flour by Farinograph: Constant Dough Weight Procedure

The Farinograph measures and records the resistance of dough to mixing. It is used to evaluate absorption of flours and to determine stability and other characteristics of doughs during mixing. Two different methods are in common use: the constant dough weight procedure, described herein, and the constant flour weight procedure (Method 54-21.02). Since the two procedures may not yield identical results, the method employed must be specified when absorption and other farinogram values are reported.

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54-28.02 Farinograph Table for Constant Dough Weight Method Only

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54-29.01 Approximate Corrections for Changing As-Is Farinograph Absorption to 14.0% Moisture Basis, for Constant Dough Weight Method Only

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54-30.02 Alveograph Method for Soft and Hard Wheat Flour

The alveograph measures resistance of dough to extension and extent to which it can be stretched under the conditions of the method. In this method, a sheet of dough of definite thickness prepared under specified conditions is expanded by air pressure into a bubble until it is ruptured. The internal pressure in bubble is graphically recorded on moving paper or automated integrator.

A video demonstration accompanies this method.

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54-40.02 Mixograph Method

The mixograph measures and records resistance of a dough to mixing. The mixing curve (mixogram) indicates optimum development time (point of minimum mobility), tolerance to overmixing, and other dough characteristics and estimates bake absorption. The mixograph has been used to study the effects of added ingredients on mixing properties, dough rheology, blending, and quality control and for evaluation of hard, soft, and durum wheats.

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54-50.01 Determination of the Water Absorption Capacity of Flours and of Physical Properties of Wheat Flour Doughs, Using the Consistograph

A dough is made from wheat flour to which an amount of water, based on the initial moisture content of the flour, is added in order to reach a constant hydration level on a dry-matter basis. During the kneading of this dough sample, the pressure on one side of the mixer is continuously monitored. The peak pressure recorded during kneading is used to calculate the water absorption of the flour sample at a given "consistency" (target pressure, HYDxxxx). In a subsequent test performed at the hydration level previously determined, physical properties of the wheat flour dough are determined. This method is applicable to all wheat flours.

A video demonstration accompanies this method.

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54-60.01 Determination of Rheological Behavior as a Function of Mixing and Temperature Increase in Wheat Flour and Whole Wheat Meal by Mixolab

Dough behaviors during the mixing process are related to many parameters. Some, such as water uptake, dough development time, and dough stability during mixing, are related to protein content and quality. Others, such as gelatinization, setback, and gelling, are related to starch content and quality. By measuring the torque of the dough during mixing with an increase in temperature, the Mixolab makes it possible to obtain complete information regarding the sample, allowing the user to better understand the wheat or flour characteristics.

This method is applicable to flour obtained from Triticum aestivum from a laboratory or an industrial milling. It can also be applied to whole meal of wheat ground under standardized conditions.

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54-70.01 High-Speed Mixing Rheology of Wheat Flour Using the doughLAB

This method determines the mixing quality of wheat flour doughs using the doughLAB, which measures resistance of a dough to mixing (as dough consistency) and gives dough quality measures such as water absorption, dough development time, stability, and other mixing characteristics. The method describes a procedure that emulates the high rate of addition of mechanical energy now commonly used in modern dough mixers integral in rapid-bake (straight dough) systems. The method is applicable to any flour, including, but not limited to, flours that are very strong or are difficult to develop.

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