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Glycemic response of chickpea and food grade DDGS(FDDG) fortified pita breads
P. KRISHNAN (1), W. Alrayyes (1) (1) SDSU, brookings, SD, U.S.A..

The estimated cost of diabetes in the US is $245 Billion. Consumption of low-glycemic index (GI) foods, have been shown to improve glucose tolerance. There is a need for more low cost and more diversified range of Low Glycemic Response (LGR) foods.  Chickpea (CP) and newer ingredients such as food grade distillers grain (FDDG) are known for high fiber and protein content and may be helpful ingredients in new food formulations. Our objective was to compare the Glycemic Response (GR) of combinations of CP and FDDG fortified pita breads in test subjects. Pita breads were made employing the following blends All Purpose Flour (APF,Control), APF:garbanzo (90:10 & 80:20),  APF:FDDG (90:10 & 80:20), APF: garbanzo:FDDG (70:20:10 & 70:10:20). The experiment design was a single blind, randomized controlled, cross over design with a convenience sample of twelve panelists.  Following overnight fasting, subjects consumed each bread type. Blood samples were collected at 30 min intervals. Glycemic response curves were constructed. Area under the Curve (AUC) was calculated.  Control (APF) yielded an IAUC of 86.9mmol.min/L). Pita bread containing 10% CP yielded an IAUC of 84.23 mmol.min/L while the 20%CP showed IAUC of 67.3 mmol.min/L.  Ten percentFDDG pita breads showed IAUC of 56.35 mmol.min/L while the 20% FDDG pita bread showed an IAUC of 48.53 mmol.min/L. Inclusion of CP and FDDG into APF, separately and in combinations (70:20 10 & 70:10: 20), resulted in improvements of the GR when compared to APF control Pita.  Sensory analysis of the pita breads showed lower taste scores for 10% and 20% chickpea only formulations. The study demonstrated the efficacy of high fiber and high protein ingredients such as chickpeas and food grade distillers grains in the development of low glycemic response foods.