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The Amorphization of Vitamin B1 in Polymer Dispersions and Comparison of Stability in Amorphous and Crystalline States
S. ARIOGLU TUNCIL (1), L. Mauer (2) (1) Purdue University, west lafayette, IN, U.S.A.; (2) Purdue University Food Science Department, , U.S.A..

Thiamin (Vitamin B1) is an essential water soluble nutrient.  For food fortification purposes, two synthetic salt forms of thiamin, thiamin hydrochloride (THC) and thiamin mononitrate, are extensively used.  These are deliquescent crystalline solids.  Thiamin is considered as one of the most unstable vitamins in food and is susceptible to heat, light, and neutral and alkaline pH conditions.  It is hypothesized that thiamin becomes amorphous in some food (especially, cereal based) products due to formulation and processing treatments.  The chemical stability of compounds is highly associated with their solid state (amorphous versus crystalline); however, there is no information available in the literature about the chemical stability of THC in both crystalline and amorphous forms. The objective of this study was to create amorphous forms of THC in the presence of a variety of polymers, which of majority are obtained from cereals, and then compare the chemical stability of crystalline and amorphous THC in different environmental conditions.  THC was amorphized using select polymers (maltodextrin, pectin and PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and lyophilization and stored in controlled temperature (25-60oC) and relative humidity (11-75%RH) conditions for up to 8 weeks. THC chemical degradation was tracked using HPLC, and samples were also analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Color parameters were also monitored to correlate chemical degradation with change in color. Amorphous THC was successfully created in the presence, but not in the absence, of the polymers.  Both %RH and temperature had significant impact on the degradation of THC in both forms, but moreso on the amorphous form.  Degradation of THC was also affected by the Tg and pH of polymers, however, the Tg of the polymers was not directly related to the THC chemical stability.