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Modified starch as fat replacement: effect on bread quality
K. WHITNEY (1), S. Simsek (1) (1) North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, U.S.A..

Using fat in bread production is expensive, and from the diet point of view, fat counts as a high caloric food. Since obesity is a significant problem in the USA and many other countries, food industries are turning to fat replacers. Samples were prepared with no fat, 2% vegetable shortening and 2% and 4% octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) wheat and tapioca starches. Dough quality was determined using a farinograph. Bread was baked according to AACC-I approved method 10-09.01 with 2 hour fermentation. Bread quality was also evaluated with a C-Cell imaging system and bread firmness was measured with a texture analyzer. Addition of OSA starches significantly (p>0.05) increased the farinograph water absorption, without greatly altering the other farinograph parameters. The bread loaf volumes ranged from 930.0 to 741.7 cc. The bread with no fat had the lowest loaf volume and bread with vegetable shortening had the highest loaf volume. Breads with OSA starches had significantly (p<0.05) lower loaf volume (746.7-823.3 cc) than bread with vegetable shortening, but significantly (p<0.05) higher than bread with no fat. Using OSA wheat and tapioca starches resulted in lower bread firmness during 7 days of storage than the bread with no fat and similar firmness to the bread with vegetable shortening. Bread firmness on day 1 for breads with no fat vegetable shortening was 2.14 N and 1.31 N, respectively. While the firmness for breads with OSA starches ranged from 1.55 N to 1.82 N on day 1. The crumb quality of the breads with OSA starches was similar to the bread with vegetable shortening. Results showed that samples with 4% OSA modified wheat and tapioca starch can be used as fat replacers in bread production. Dough and bread properties in comparison with control sample with 2% shortening had better or the same characteristics.