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Influence of baking bread dough placed between electrodes of varying distances in an electrical resistance oven [ERO]
S. ANGALET (1) (1) Angalet Group International, Elmhurst, IL, U.S.A..

The electric resistance oven [ERO] baking of bread is a well-established process in the manufacture of Panko [a flaky bread crumb used in Japanese cuisine]. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule’s first law and Ohm’s law. There is no standardization of ERO baking equipment. One such equipment attribute is the range of distances between electrodes in the bake chamber. This study focused on the effect distance between electrodes had on the rate of heating during baking. The distances between electrodes selected from Japanese literature are: 11 cm, 13 cm, and 15 cm. A Japanese patent bread formula was used in this study. We used constant voltage in this study. The results showed that the smaller the distance between electrodes the faster was the rate of baking. Baking with electrodes at 11cm distance the dough reached 100C in 14 minutes while at distance of 15 cm it took 27 minutes. The results showed a steady rise in current [amps] to an initial peak followed by a slight reduction and a second peak coinciding with reaching 100C. Baking with the electrode at 11 cm distance achieved a first peak of 1.44 amps while at distance of 15 cm the current was peak was 1.06 amps. The electrical current is associated with the available free water and the electrolytes. The steady rise in current during baking would be associated with dough having increased conductivity and upon reaching a peak [near 52C] began to decline associated with reduction of conductivity. The results showed an increase in dough resistance as the distance between electrodes increased. This study found that distance between electrodes in an ERO baking chamber had significant influences on the rate of heating, amount of current passing through dough, effect on baking time, and effect on changes in conductivity.