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Extrusion processing to develop snacks from garbanzo flour and distiller’s dried grains developed for food applicationss
P. KRISHNAN (1), K. Muthukumarappan (1), P. Singha (1) (1) South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, U.S.A..

Pulse flours, when combined with distillers grains, represent a novel blend as it is gluten-free and high in protein and fiber content. The present study investigated the effects of distiller’s dried grains developed for food applications on the physical and nutritional characteristics, of garbanzo flour (GF)-corn grits (CG) based extruded products. The aim of the experiment was to optimize barrel temperature (100 to 140 °C), screw speed (100 to 200 rpm), moisture content of blend (14 to 20 % d.b.) and levels of distillers grain (0-20 %) based on properties of extrudates such as water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), bulk density (BD), radial expansion ratio (RER), textural properties and total dietary fiber using single screw extruder. Percentage of corn grits (60%) was kept constant for all the formulation. The study was carried out by central composite rotatable design (CCRD) using Response surface methodology (RSM) which generated 27 experimental runs. Mathematical models for various responses were found to fit significantly (P<0.05) for prediction. Optimization of experimental conditions was carried out using numerical optimization technique and the optimum barrel temperature, moisture content, screw speed and distiller’s grain percentage were 125°C, 15.8%, 175 rpm and 20 % respectively with desirability value of 0.907. Experiments were carried out using predicted values and verified using t-test and coefficient of variation percentage. An extruded snack prepared with distiller’s grain (20 %) and garbanzo flour (20 %) at optimized conditions was found to be acceptable by taste panelists.