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Comparisons of Whole Wheat Bread Baking Methods for Evaluation of Bread Quality
S. SIMSEK (1), K. Khalid (1) (1) North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, U.S.A..

Whole-wheat bread quality, such as loaf volume and crumb texture, depends on whole-wheat flour characteristics, ingredients, and bread-making methods used. Sponge-and-dough (SpD) method is widely used commercially in the United States. Straight dough (StD) method offers an intermediate fermentation time and is the most widely used method for experimental baking in breeding programs. No-time dough (NoD) method offer process advantages of less space requirement and short processing and operation time, flavor development is poor and product formulation is stringent. This study used four different types of commercial whole-wheat flours with different physical and chemical characteristics to evaluate three different types of bread-baking methods (SpD, StD and NoD). Results showed that the StD and NoD methods required higher water absorption than the SpD method. Loaf volumes of whole-wheat bread made with the SpD method were higher than whole-wheat bread made with other baking methods. Whole-wheat bread made using the NoD method had the heaviest loaf weight, as due to the lack of fermentation in this method. The StD method resulted in the highest variation in baking mix time, baked weight, crumb grain score, and symmetry score. Higher variation is needed to identify differences among flour types as well as cultivars used. StD with an extra 10 min of proofing was found to be the best method for whole-wheat bread in order to see the differences between flour used, especially for different cultivars. This is important to help breeders for evaluation of whole-wheat bread quality. SpD method was not thought to be a suitable experimental bread-making method for quality evaluation of whole wheat flour since it is a great equalizer and showed no significant difference for crumb firmness and crumb grain and texture among whole-wheat bread made from different flour types.