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Lentil-corn-fermented C.S. seed flours made into expanded extrudates: physico-chemical and nutri-functional attributes
M. MONTES (1), J. Berrios (2) (1) University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, U.S.A.; (2) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, West Regional Research Center, Albany, CA, U.S.A..

California is the fourth largest wine producer in the world. The main waste by-products of the wine industry are grape pomace, seeds and skins. However, grapes and their by-products have been touted as powerful antioxidants with important health benefits. Fermented Cabernet Sauvignon seed flour (FCSSF) at a concentration of 5%, 12.5% or 20% were mixed with based formulations of corn-lentil (30:70 ratio), starch, and flavoring agents, and extruded at 20% feed moisture content and 140 oC die temperature. The protein content in the extrudates decreased more with an increase in starch than FCSSF in the formulations. Conversely, the fat and ash content presented an opposite effect in the extrudates. Formulations with highest percentage of FCSSF had the highest amount of TSP and antioxidant capacity after processing. However, the total soluble phenolics significant decreased (<i>p</i>< 0.05) in all formulated flours, at consequence of the extrusion process. The in vitro protein digestibility of the extrudates was significantly greater (<i>p</i>< 0.05) for the control and formulation with the least content (5%) of FCSSF. All other evaluated samples were not significantly different (<i>p</i>< 0.05) to their unprocessed formulations. The greatest expansion ratio of 3.236 was obtained for formulation containing the least content (5%) of FCSSF and highest starch content (20%). Control extrudate, based on corn-lentil flour, expanded significantly (<i>p</i>< 0.05) greater that extrudate based on starch. This effect was generally observed in all other extrudates formulated with different concentration of FCSSF and starch. Effect of processing on color was only evident for formulation containing 12.5-12.5% and 12.5-20% FCSSF and 12.5% starch, respectively, with ?E = 1.00. In general, the inclusion of FCSSF showed to have potential in the fabrication of healthy expanded food products.