|Effects of wheat cultivar, water, NaCl and mixing on the rheological properties of bread dough|
X. SUN (1), F. Koksel (1), M. Scanlon (1), M. Nickerson (2) (1) University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; (2) University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Predicting breadmaking performance and bread quality based on dough’s rheological properties is a common practice in cereal science. The roles of ingredients (i.e., wheat flour, water and NaCl) and mixing time, separately, on dough rheological properties have previously been studied. But how dough rheological properties are affected by the interactions of ingredients and mixing (i.e., optimal, under- and over-mixing) has not been reported yet. The objective of this research was to investigate the interactive effects of wheat cultivar (totally 4), water concentration, NaCl concentration and mixing time on the rheological properties of doughs using mixograph, oscillatory frequency sweep and creep recovery tests. From mixograph analyses, dough rheological properties were better discriminated according to wheat cultivar at the low-moisture and high-NaCl (2.0-3.0% flour weight) conditions. For optimally mixed doughs, the effect of water on mixograph parameters such as Energy to Peak (ETP) was more significant at high-NaCl conditions, whereas the effects of water on the complex modulus (G*) and maximum creep compliance (Jmax) were more significant at low-NaCl (0-1.1%) conditions. In terms of changes in Mixing Development Time (MDT) and ETP, the doughs made from cultivar Pembina, Roblin and Harvest were more tolerant to NaCl reduction. Based on Jmax and relative elasticity (Jel), Roblin doughs prepared at optimal mixing and water addition were less responsive to NaCl changes. Considering the interaction of mixing and NaCl on dough rheological properties, G* and Jmax were more significantly affected by NaCl for under-mixed doughs. In conclusion, wheat cultivar, water, NaCl and mixing time exert interactive effects on the rheological properties of bread dough. For optimal breadmaking, ingredients and mixing time all need to be taken into account when preparing bread dough.