|New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum|
J. BOEHM, JR. (1), M. Ibba (2), A. Kiszonas (3), C. Morris (3) (1) Washington State University, Pullman, WA, U.S.A.; (2) Washington State University, , U.S.A.; (3) USDA ARS, , U.S.A..
Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white wheat, was developed by the homoeologous transfer of the <i>Puroindoline</i> genes at the <i>Ha</i> locus from the D genome of <i>Triticum aestivum. </i>The objectives of this research were to change the kernel texture of CIMMYT’s 42nd elite durum yield nursery from hard to soft using Soft Svevo as the donor line and to evaluate the impact of the introgression of the <i>Ha</i> locus in the new soft durum genotypes. In 2015, 48 derived F2:5 CIMMYT soft durum lines were grown in plots in two locations (Pullman & Lind, WA) and in two replications. Grain was tempered, milled, baked, and subjected to end-use quality analysis in the Western Wheat Quality Laboratory. Data were analyzed and significant differences (<i>p</i><0.05) were detected amongst genotypes for test weight (60.5-63.5 lbs/bushel), kernel hardness (2.0-25.7 SKCS), break flour yield (37.7-43.8 %), flour yield (58.9-65.9 %), SDS sedimentation (3.2-12.5 ml/g), loaf volume (633-863 cm3), and flour protein (11.5-13.5 %). No differences were detected for flour ash. Orthogonal contrasts between full-sib groups were also significantly different (<i>p</i><0.05) indicating great progress can be made to broaden durum’s milling potential and culinary end-uses if Soft Svevo’s crossing parent possesses favorable alleles for end-use quality. These results suggest that the kernel texture of virtually any durum cultivar may now be softened via introgression of the <i>Ha</i> locus. Doing so would potentially create a new U.S. wheat market class, soft durum, and suggests that a paradigm shift is in order for its new milling characteristics, baking potential and food products.