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Effect of Dough Processing Conditions and DATEM on Norwegian Hearth Bread Prepared from Frozen Dough

January 1999 Volume 76 Number 1
Pages 38 — 44
S. Sahlstrøm , 1 , 2 A. O. Nielsen , 1 E. M. Færgestad , 1 P. Lea , 1 W. J. Park , 3 , 4 and M. R. Ellekjær 1

MATFORSK, Norwegian Food Research Institute, Osloveien 1, N-1430 Ås, Norway. Corresponding author. E-mail: stefan.sahlstrom@matforsk.no Phone: +4764970106. Fax: +4764970333. University of Nebraska, Dept. of Agronomy, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 154 Keim Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915. Present address: Room 303, Leema Bldg. 146-1, Soosong-dong Chong-ku, Seoul 110-140, Korea.

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Accepted July 8, 1998.

The objective of this study was to examine treatments that directly influence Norwegian lean doughs destined to be frozen. Therefore a strip-block experimental design with four dough treatment factors (wheat flour blend, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides [DATEM], water absorption, and dough temperature) and two storage factors (frozen storage time and thawing time) was used. Four levels were selected for frozen storage time and two levels were selected for the remaining factors. After frozen storage (2–70 days), the doughs were thawed and baked. Principal component analysis showed that to obtain a high loaf volume and bread score after freezing, a high dough temperature after mixing (27°C) was essential. The highest form ratio (height/width) level was obtained after 28 days of frozen storage and with a short thawing time (6 hr). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of dough treatments showed that an increase in dough temperature from 20 to 27°C after mixing resulted in a significant increase in loaf volume (1,653 to 2,264 mL), form ratio (0.64 to 0.69), and bread score (1.7 to 3.2), and a reduction in loaf weight (518.4 to 512.5 g) and crumb score (7.9 to 5.9, i.e., a more open bread crumb). Also, the addition of DATEM significantly increased loaf volume (1,835 to 2,081 mL), form ratio (0.64 to 0.69), and bread score (2.2 to 2.6). Frozen dough storage time significantly affected loaf volume, loaf weight, bread score, and crumb score. Increasing thawing time from 6 to 10 hr significantly increased loaf volume (1,855 to 2,121 mL), and reduced the form ratio (0.69 to 0.63) and loaf weight (516.8 to 511.4 g). ANOVA of the interaction between dough treatment and frozen storage time showed that decreasing water absorption significantly increased the loaf volume.

© 1999 American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.