Forty grain samples, derived from six soft red winter wheat lines with 1BL/1RS and four genotypes without the translocation, grown in four diverse environments, were used to assess test weight, flour yield, protein content of grain and flour, rheological properties, and end-use characteristics in cakes and cookies. Wheat lines with 1BL/1RS had similar or higher mean test weights than lines without the translocation. Mean flour yields were similar for the two groups. Test weight was not predictive of flour yield. Mean values for grain moisture, grain protein, and rheological properties, as measured by farinograph for mixing time stability and mixing tolerance index, were similar for wheat lines with and without 1BL/1RS. In several cases, flour from lines with 1BL/1RS produced dough with greater mixing tolerance and cakes with higher volume and softer texture than did check lines without the translocation. However, the translocation in these soft red winter wheat lines resulted in higher farinograph water absorption by the flour and decreased cookie spread. The results of this study were novel in that end-use, specifically baking quality of soft wheat lines with 1BL/1RS, varied dramatically depending on whether cookies or cakes were evaluated. Therefore, use of single-product baking tests may lead to false conclusions regarding end-use quality of 1BL/1RS soft wheat. Direct comparison between a pair of sister lines with and without 1BL/1RS indicated that the translocation had adverse effects on quality as exemplified by lower flour yield, greater farinograph water absorption, and reduced cookie diameter. However, the 1BL/1RS line had greater mixing tolerance and similar cake volume and texture scores in comparison to its sister line. In summary, 1BL/1RS lines were identified in which quality characteristics exceeded those of control cultivars and commercial flours. Genetic background and environmental factors probably affected milling and baking quality to a greater extent than the translocation. Many of the negative quality attributes previously associated with 1BL/1RS are probably due to genetic background effects and, therefore, could be greatly diminished with improvement of the genetic background in which the translocation resides.