One nonwaxy (covered) and two waxy (hull-less) barleys, whole grain and commercially abraded, were milled to break flour, reduction flour, and the bran fraction with a roller mill under optimized conditions. The flour yield range was 55.3–61.8% in whole grain and increased by 9–11% by abrasion before milling. Break flours contained the highest starch content (≤85.8%) independent of type of barley and abrasion level. Reduction flours contained less starch, but more protein, ash, free lipids, and total β-glucans than break flours. The bran fraction contained the highest content of ash, free lipids, protein, and total β-glucans but the lowest content of starch. Break flours milled from whole grain contained 82–91% particles <106 μm, and reduction flours contained ≈80% particles <106 μm. Abrasion significantly increased the amount of particles <38 μm in break and reduction flours in both types of barley. Viscosity of hot paste prepared with barley flour or bran at 8% concentration was strongly affected by barley type and abrasion level. In cv. Waxbar, the viscosity in bran fractions increased from 428 to 1,770 BU, and in break flours viscosity increased from 408 to 725 BU due to abrasion. Sugar snap cookies made from nonwaxy barley had larger diameter than cookies prepared from waxy barley. Cookies made from break flours were larger than those made from reduction flours, independent of type of barley. Quick bread baked from nonwaxy barley had a loaf volume similar to that of wheat bread, whereas waxy barley bread had a smaller loaf volume. Replacement of 20% of wheat flour by both waxy and nonwaxy barley flour or bran did not significantly affect the loaf volume but did decrease the hardness of quick bread crumb.