National Food Biotechnology Centre, University College, Cork, Ireland.
Dept. of Food Technology, University College, Cork, Ireland.
Dept. of Food Chemistry, University College, Cork, Ireland.
Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com Phone: +353-21-902064. Fax: +353-21-276138.
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Accepted February 17, 1999.
Empirical and fundamental rheology measurements were made on fresh and frozen dough to investigate the effects of freezing, frozen storage, and additives. These results were compared with results of a standard baking test. Four formulations were tested: a control dough, and doughs with additions of 100 ppm of ascorbic acid (AA), 0.5% sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), and 0.5% diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM). Rheological and baking tests were performed on fresh doughs and on doughs after two, five, and eight weeks of frozen storage. Resistance to extension was higher for doughs with additives in fresh and frozen doughs. There was a decrease in resistance to extension due to freezing. Complex modulus in fresh doughs was highest for doughs with SSL. There was a decrease complex modulus after freezing and thawing. In frozen doughs at 10 Hz, doughs with additives had higher complex modulus values and lower phase angle values when compared to the control. The additives used all had a positive effect on proof time, loaf volume, and crumb firmness, and all formulations deteriorated in quality during frozen storage. Resistance to extension and complex modulus were positively correlated with loaf volume (r = 0.86 and r = 0.64, P < 0.01). Phase angle was negatively correlated with loaf volume (r = -0.74, P < 0.01).
© 1999 American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.