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Comparison of Yield and Composition of Oil Extracted from Corn Fiber and Corn Bran

May 1999 Volume 76 Number 3
Pages 449 — 451
Robert A. Moreau , 1 , 2 Vijay Singh , 3 Steven R. Eckhoff , 3 Michael J. Powell , 1 Kevin B. Hicks , 1 and Robert A. Norton 4

Eastern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038. Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name by the USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. Corresponding author. E-mail: rmoreau@arserrc.gov Phone: 215/233-6428. Fax: 215/233-6406. Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802. National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, ARS, USDA, 1815 N. University, Peoria, IL, 61604.

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Accepted February 17, 1999.

We recently reported that corn fiber oil contains high levels of three potential cholesterol-lowering phytosterol components: ferulate-phytosterol esters (FPE) (3–6 wt%), free phytosterols (1–2 wt%), and phytosterol-fatty acyl esters (7–9 wt%). A previous study also indicated that corn bran oil contained less phytosterol components than corn fiber oil. The current study was undertaken to attempt to confirm this preliminary observation using more defined conditions. Accordingly, oil was extracted from corn fiber and corn bran prepared under controlled laboratory conditions, using the same sample of corn hybrid kernels for each, and using recognized bench-scale wet-milling, and dry-milling procedures, respectively. After extraction, the chemical composition of the phytosterol components in the oil were measured. This study confirmed our previous observation—that FPE levels were higher in corn fiber oil than in corn bran oil. During industrial wet-milling, almost all of the FPE are recovered in the fiber fraction (which contains both fine and coarse fiber). During laboratory-scale wet-milling, ≈60–70% of the FPE are recovered in the coarse fiber (pericarp) and 30–40% are recovered in the fine fiber. During laboratory-scale dry-milling, <20% of the FPE are recovered in the bran (pericarp), and the rest in the grits. The recoveries of the other two phytosterol components (free phytosterols and phytosterol-fatty acyl esters) revealed a more complex distribution, with significant levels found in several of the dry- and wet-milled products.

This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.