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Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Contents of Oat Groats and Hulls

November 1999 Volume 76 Number 6
Pages 902 — 906
Cheryld L. Emmons 1 and David M. Peterson 1 3

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Cereal Crops Research Unit, 501 Walnut St., Madison, WI 53705. Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name by USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Corresponding author. Phone: 608/262-4482. Fax: 608/264-5528. E-mail: dmpeter4@facstaff.wisc.edu

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Accepted July 22, 1999.

Research was initiated to measure antioxidant activity of extracts from oat (Avena sativa L.) groats and hulls and the concentrations of phenolic substances that may contribute to antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of four cultivars was evaluated by an in vitro assay that measures the inhibition of coupled autoxidation of linoleic acid and β-carotene. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin and Ciocalteau's phenol reagent and was expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Phenolic compounds were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and detected at 290 nm. Peaks were identified by comparing retention times and spectra with known standards and verified with internal standards. Groats had significantly higher antioxidant activity than hulls. For two cultivars, total phenolic content was similar in groats and hulls, whereas one cultivar had higher and another lower total phenolic content in groats than hulls. Ten phenolic compounds were separated and identified in extracts, and one flavan-3-ol and three avenanthramides were tentatively identified. The concentrations of many of these compounds differed among cultivars and between fractions. In general, caffeic acid and the avenanthramides were predominantly found in groats, whereas many of the other phenolics were present in greater concentrations in hulls.

This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.