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Chapter 5: Bakery Product Applications

Fats and Oils
Pages 61-79
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/9780913250907.005
ISBN: 0-913250-90-2


Topics Covered

  • Functions in Baked Goods
    • Product Characteristics
    • Processing
  • Hard Wheat Products
    • Bread, Rolls
    • Laminated Doughs
    • Yeast-Raised Doughnuts
  • Soft Wheat Products
    • Cake
    • Cake Doughnuts
    • Cookies
    • Crackers
    • Pie Crusts, Biscuits
    • Filler Fats and Icings
  • Pan-Release Agents
  • Troubleshooting

Introduction to Chapter

Fats and oils have been important bakery ingredients for centuries. Indeed, “shortening” is a baker's term; fat in a bakery item “shortens” (tenderizes) the texture of the finished product. Shortening also plays an important part in the efficient processing of many bakery products. The primary properties of a fat or oil that determine its ability to carry out these functions are:

  • Its ratio of solid to liquid phase
  • Its oxidative stability
  • The plasticity of a solid shortening

The physical basis of these properties has been discussed in Chapter 1. This chapter discusses how they interact with other aspects of baking (e.g., ingredients, processing) to produce the desired final result.

Emulsifiers also influence how shortening functions. Thus, any discussion of the role of fats and oils in bakery products must include emulsifiers and how they affect final product quality.