The use and functionality of carbohydrate-based sweeteners is key to balancing processing concerns and health and nutrition initiatives.
Production and Description
R. J. Alexander. Sweeteners: Nutritive Handbook, pages 17–29, AACCI, 1997.
Practical considerations in caloric sugar reduction
D. Vellucci, CFW Plexus Webcasts, 2012.
Successful genetic control of a range of starch structural and functional traits can have a strong impact on food and feed applications.
Fine mapping the control of starch structural and functional properties in wheat
M. K. Morell, CFW Plexus Webcasts, 2012.
Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose
A. Blennow. CFW Plexus Webcasts, 2012.
The molecular structure of starch contributes to its functional characteristics and contributes to a number of nutrition and health benefits.
REVIEW: Molecular Diversity in Pulse Seed Starch and Complex Carbohydrates and Its Role in Human Nutrition and Health
R. N. Chibbar, P. Ambigaipalan, and R. Hoover, Cereal Chemistry, 87:342-352, 2010.
Effect of RS4 Resistant Starch on Extruded Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Breakfast Cereal Quality
R. Miller, J. Jeong, and C. C. Maningat, Cereal Chemistry, 88: 584-588, 2011.
George Amponsah Annor is a Ph.D. candidate at Grain Biopolymer Research Laboratory, in the University of Guelph Department of Food Science. He is also presently the coordinator for the West African Food Data Systems (WAFOODS) of the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Currently a lecturer at the Department of Nutrition and Food Science of the University of Ghana, George is on study leave to pursue his Ph.D. degree at the University of Guelph. Now in the final year of his Ph.D. program, George’s research is focused on studying the unit and internal chain profile of millet amylopectin and investigating the reasons for the hypoglycemic property of millets.
Read more from the Carbohydrate Division update...
All the branches in the internal part of amylopectins are clustered. One of the major challenges in studying the internal structure is to define the clusters. Models of the clusters have been proposed and a definition has been suggested, but the exact structure of a cluster remains to be explored. Conceptually, this question may be re-addressed by considering the branches organized as building blocks, which are practically α-limit dextrins formed by α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and can be structurally defined. α-Limit dextrins formed by α- amylases from other sources may also be produced and characterized to provide an alternative view and could be a direction for future research.
Amylopectin is the major component in starch. It is elongated through α-(1→4)-linked D-glucosyl residues with α-(1→6)-linkages as branches. In the granules, the branches form the internal parts of amylopectin, are found inside amorphous lamellae, and from these external chains are clustered in double helices and build up the crystalline lamellae. The internal structure of amylopectin (i.e., the composition and arrangement of branches) and their relationships to the functionality of starch are still largely unclear.