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03 Issues & Trends
Cereal Foods World, Vol. 63, No. 4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-63-4-0147
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In-depth Understanding of Ingredient Functionality in Cake as a Basis for Clean Label Products: Bleached Flour Replacement
Ingrid Van Haesendonck,1 Geertrui Bosmans,1 Charles Galliher,2 Kristof Brijs,3 and Jan A. Delcour3
1 Puratos Group NV, Industrialaan 25, 1702 Groot-Bijgaarden, Belgium.

2 Puratos Corp., 1660 Suckle Highway, Pennsauken, NJ 08110, U.S.A.
3 KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.


To create a layer cake, a high-ratio cake formula is used. The production of a high-ratio cake with acceptable volume, fine and homogenous crumb structure, and firm, resilient, and moist crumb typically requires use of chlorinated or bleached flour (i.e., flour treated with chlorine gas) and a suitable emulsifier. Today consumers are seeking cakes made with more natural ingredients without associated health risks and fewer additives. To meet consumer demands retailers are increasingly eliminating chlorinated flour and some emulsifiers from their accepted ingredients lists. Removing both chlorinated flour and emulsifiers (specifically polyglycerol ester [PGE] and propylene glycol monoester [PGME]) from the formulation of high-ratio cakes while maintaining specific high-ratio cake characteristics is not a straightforward process. In a joint research effort KU Leuven (Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry) and Puratos have extensively studied the functionality of chlorinated flour in high-ratio cakes. The findings were used in the development of a solution for replacing chlorinated flour that consists of a combination of ingredients that synergistically provide fast hydration, viscosity buildup, and stabilization of oil droplets and gas cells during the batter stage and baking. This solution can be applied in a clean label, high-ratio cake formula that maintains the characteristic appearance and eating properties of standard layer cakes available in the U.S. market.

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