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Cereal Foods World, Vol. 64, No. 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-64-5-0053
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Quinoa and Other Andean Ancient Grains: Super Grains for the Future
Ritva Repo-Carrasco-Valencia1,2 and Julio M. Vidaurre-Ruiz1,3

1 Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Productos Derivados de Cultivos Andinos, Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Avenida de la Universidad s/n La Molina, Lima, Perú.

2 Corresponding author. Tel: +511 967907665; E-mail: ritva@lamolina.edu.pe; Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ritva.repo; Twitter: https://twitter.com/repo_ritva

3 Programa Doctoral en Ciencia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. E-mail: vidaurrrejm@lamolina.edu.pe; Twitter: https://twitter.com/JulioVidaurreR1


© 2019 AACC International, Inc.

Abstract

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), kañiwa (C. pallidicaule), and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) are nutritious native grains that have adapted to the distinct environmental conditions of the Andes mountains of South America. Andean native grains have relatively high protein contents compared with more commonly grown cereal grains, such as corn (maize), wheat, and rice, and the biological value of their proteins is excellent as well. Additionally, these grains are good sources of high-quality oil and dietary fiber, and their starches have interesting rheological properties that make them suitable for use as ingredients in a variety of food products. Quinoa, kañiwa, and kiwicha also can be used in the development of functional foods because of their bioactive compound contents (e.g., flavonoids and natural antioxidants). Today, the food industry is using Andean ancient grains to develop novel products such as enriched and gluten-free breads and pasta products and beverages. These grains also are an excellent source of ingredients that could be used in the development of nutritious and tasty fine cuisine dishes by the culinary industry.





The Andean region of South America is an important center of food crop domestication. This region encompasses diverse landscapes and agroecological zones due to its variations in climate and altitude (1,500–4,200 m above sea level) and is different than other regions of the world where crops have been domesticated. In the Andean region, there are no vast plains of uniformly fertile, well-watered land, as are found in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. In fact, the area is almost devoid of flat, fertile, well-watered soil. The Andean people have traditionally cultivated their crops on tiny plots, one above the other, on mountainsides rising thousands of meters (39).

At the time of the Spanish invasion, the Incas cultivated almost as many species of plants as did the farmers in all of Asia and Europe. It has been estimated that Andean natives domesticated as many as 70 separate crop species (39). On mountainsides up to 4 km high along the length of the South American continent, in climates varying from tropical to polar, they grew roots, grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts. During the time of the Inca Empire, Peru was a very prosperous farming country with a population of 10 million people, for which, based on research, malnutrition was practically unknown. The cultivation of many traditional crops decreased dramatically after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors. Until recently, these ancient plants have received little scientific interest or commercial advancement. Even so, they include some widely adaptable, extremely nutritious grains that are used to create remarkably tasty foods.

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a member of the family Chenopodiaceae, was a very important seed crop for the Incas, who referred to quinoa as the “mother grain” (chisiya mama in Quechua, the native language of the Incas). Quinoa was domesticated at least 8,000 years ago on the high plateau (Altiplano) of the Andes near Lake Titicaca (42). Today, quinoa is cultivated mainly in the Andean region from Colombia to northern Argentina, with Peru and Bolivia as the primary producers. There are different types or landraces of quinoa that are adapted to distinct environmental conditions (Fig. 1). Quinoa can be cultivated at sea level, in Andean valleys, on the Altiplano, and in other climates, such as the Bolivian salt flats. The varieties grown on the Bolivian Altiplano tolerate low temperatures (–8°C), alkaline soils (pH 8), and salinity (52 mS/cm) (38).

Kañiwa (C. pallidicaule Aellen) is closely related to quinoa and was considered a variety of quinoa until 1929, when it was classified as a separate species (21). Kañiwa grows under very harsh environmental conditions, mainly on the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano, and is more resistant than quinoa to frost. In its native area, year-round temperatures average less than 10°C, and frost occurs for at least nine months of the year. The frost resistance of kañiwa is probably due to a special anatomical structure that protects its flowers from damage at low temperatures (65). Kañiwa is a very important food crop for highland farmers when other crops fail because of frost. The most intensive production of kañiwa occurs north of Lake Titicaca in the department of Puno in Peru. The department of La Paz is the main producer of kañiwa in Bolivia.

Domestication of amaranths as grain crops took place only in tropical regions of the Americas. Three species were developed as domesticated grain crops in pre-Columbian America: Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus, and A. hypochondriacus. A crucial step in amaranth domestication was the selection by ancient farmers of mutant strains in which white seeds had replaced the typical dark seeds of wild-type strains. This resulted in cultivation of grain with improved flavor and superior popping quality. The most agronomically important Andean species is A. caudatus L., which is referred to in the Quechua language as “kiwicha.” In Ecuador, it is known as “sangoracha” and “ataco” and, in Bolivia, as “coimi” and “millmi” (Fig. 2).

Nutritional Value of Andean Grains

The composition of Andean ancient grains is presented in Table I. If we compare the composition of Andean grains with those of common cereals (e.g., corn [maize], wheat, and rice), we see that there are both similarities and differences. The content of total carbohydrate in common cereals and Andean grains is similar at about 60–75%; the main carbohydrate is starch in all of these grains. The starch found in Andean grains has some very interesting rheological properties, which could have industrial applications. The fat content in Andean grains is considerably higher than that in common cereal grains (6–7% versus 2–4%, respectively) (30). The oil in Andean grains is of high nutritional quality, containing the essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic acids in adequate proportions. As such, quinoa, kañiwa, and kiwicha could serve as raw materials to produce healthy edible oils.

All Andean grains have higher protein contents than common cereals, such as corn, wheat, and rice. According to Kent (30), the protein content of corn, wheat, and rice is 11, 10.5, and 9%, respectively. More important than protein quantity is protein quality, as defined by the composition of amino acids. All Andean grains are rich in lysine, the first limiting amino acid in common cereals. Quinoa protein not only has a higher lysine content than any other cereal grain, but also higher levels of another important essential amino acid, methionine. Quinoa protein can supply around 338% of lysine and 212% of methionine recommended for adult nutrition (4). These amino acids are especially important for those following vegetarian diets because they are limiting in vegetable proteins, with cereal grains and legumes being particularly low in lysine and methionine, respectively. Thus, addition of quinoa can improve the nutrients provided in vegetarian diets. The high nutritional value of quinoa proteins has been demonstrated in biological trials. The protein efficiency ratio of quinoa is similar to that of the milk protein, casein, which is considered an ideal protein for human nutrition. Quinoa protein digestibility is remarkably high (92%), and the protein biological value is excellent (83%) (25,27,46).

The dietary fiber content of Andean ancient grains is presented in Table II. Among quinoa, kañiwa, and kiwicha, kañiwa has the highest dietary fiber content. The fiber is mainly insoluble, as is common in cereal grains. Black kiwicha from Cusco, in southeastern Peru, has a higher dietary fiber content than white kiwicha. The soluble dietary fiber content is highest in white quinoa and kañiwa. Varietal differences in dietary fiber content are common in grains. For example, Gebruers et al. (22) found substantial variation among different wheat types and varieties. Similar results have also been obtained for oat and barley varieties (3,61). Some of this variation may be related to environmental conditions, such as soil nutrient status and water availability. Furthermore, interactions between genotype and environment may influence fiber content (60).

Grajeta (24) compared the effects of amaranth and oat bran on blood serum and liver lipids in rats. Amaranth and oat bran added separately to the diet provided 4–4.5% of the dietary fiber. Amaranth significantly decreased the level of total cholesterol in rat blood serum (10.7% in a diet containing lard and 14% in a diet containing sunflower oil) and in the liver (20% in a diet containing lard and 23% in a diet containing sunflower oil).

Pentosan is an important fiber component of nonstarch polysaccharides in cereal grains, consisting predominantly of L-arabinose and D-xylose. In terms of dietary fiber components in human nutrition, pentosan not only has an effect on food absorption, but also on decreasing absorption of lipid and cholesterol; therefore, it is very useful in the human diet. Pentosan also has a positive effect on food processing (e.g., on rheological characteristics of dough) and in macaroni production. The pentosan content in Andean grains is higher than the content found in wheat, barley, and oats.

Quinoa and amaranths are reported to be very good sources of folic acid (59). Compared with common cereal grains, Andean grains also are considered a good source of tocopherols. In addition, the calcium and magnesium contents in Andean grains are higher than those in wheat, barley, oats, and rice, whereas phosphorus and iron are found at similar levels (7).

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds with many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities. In quinoa, the principal flavonoids are quercetin and kaempferol, whereas quercetin and isorhamnetin are the principal flavonoids found in kañiwa. The quercetin content in kañiwa is exceptional high. Flavonoids have not been found in kiwicha (48). Tang et al. (64) studied the composition of flavonoids in white, red, and black quinoa and found that the principal flavonoids in these grains were quercetin and kaempferol. Berries from other species are considered an excellent source of flavonols, especially quercetin and myricetin. For example, lingonberries contain 10 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of quercetin, and cranberries contain 10.4 and 6.9 mg/100 g FW of quercetin and myricetin, respectively (33). The levels of flavonoids found in Chenopodium spp. grains are 5–10 times higher than those found in these berries; however, when compared on a dry weight basis, the contents are similar. Therefore, quinoa and kañiwa grains can be considered very good sources of flavonoids.

Plant sterols (phytosterols) are another group of biologically active components present in pseudocereal lipids. Phytosterols, which cannot be absorbed in the human intestine, have a very similar structure to cholesterol, inhibiting its intestinal absorption and, thereby, lowering plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Phytosterols also show antiviral and antitumor activities. All Andean grains contain these health-promoting compounds at substantial levels. Total sterols in amaranth lipids can represent ~20% of the unsaponifiable fraction; the predominant sterol is chondrillasterol (9). Quinoa oil has been reported to contain 1.5% sterols (31). The three major phytosterols have been found in amaranth; beta-sitosterol is the principal component (32). In one study, supplementation of animal diets with amaranth oil lowered total serum cholesterol and LDL levels, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (43).

Uses of Andean Ancient Grains

Traditional Products. Andean grains such as quinoa, kiwicha, and kañiwa traditionally have been included in the diet of the inhabitants of the Andean region of Peru in the form of whole grains or flour used in the preparation of stews, desserts, beverages, and soups. Before consumption, grains need to be processed to eliminate components that cause bitter flavors, such as saponins. Although kiwicha and kañiwa grains do not contain detectable amounts of saponins, processing is still necessary to eliminate small stones or plant residue that can be transferred to the grain during harvesting.

There are several traditional ways to prepare quinoa. One of them is “kispiño,” a small bread made with quinoa flour that is soaked in lime, warm water, and salt; on many occasions, anise and small pieces of cheese are incorporated. Another dish is “taqte,” which is prepared with the same dough used to prepare kispiño; however, taqte is fried in animal fat. “Katawi lawa” is a loose porridge of quinoa made with lime, whereas “peske” is a thick porridge that contains milk, butter, and cheese (5). Quinoa also is used to produce alcoholic beverages, such as “chicha,” and may be added to a special type of soup, “chupe,” to provide a white component.

Traditionally, kiwicha is consumed as a popped product. Popped kiwicha grains are mixed with honey or molasses to form a sweet product called “turrón.” Kiwicha can also be milled, and the flour can be consumed directly as “maska” (28).

Kañiwa traditionally is consumed in the form of “kañiwako,” which is the result of toasting and milling the grains. This flour has a very pleasant aroma and taste and is consumed with milk, water, and sugar. According to Repo-Carrasco et al. (47), some varieties of kañiwa expand in a manner similar to kiwicha when toasted and can be included in sweet and snack products.

Current Products. Since 2013, which the U.N. General Assembly declared the International Year of Quinoa, the consumption of quinoa and other Andean ancient grains has increased around the world, due in large part to increased awareness of their nutritional benefits. Currently, pasteurized quinoa beverages (similar to soy milk), breakfast cereals, cookies enriched with quinoa or kiwicha flour, and porridge-like products made with precooked amaranth seeds can be found in the marketplace. Processing of these products does not require great adaptation from methods used for common cereal grains, except in the case of extrusion of quinoa, which requires very high shear to disrupt starch granules, due to its high lipid and low amylose contents (55).

In traditional bakery products, substitution of wheat flour with 10% quinoa or 20% amaranth flour does not significantly affect product acceptability for consumers (6,49,54). The addition of these flours does produce breads with reduced volumes and less elastic crumbs; however, it improves the nutritional value of breads in terms of protein, fiber, and mineral (e.g., iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc) contents. In recent years, companies also have sought to add whole grains to their products, such as in the case of “panetón” (sweet bread), which is primarily consumed during Christmas festivities in Peru. In the case of biscuits, it has been possible to replace wheat flour with 30% quinoa flour without affecting the quality of the final product (68). In Peru, it is now common to find a breakfast beverage made with quinoa and apple in the markets, as well as quinoa and kiwicha in salads and stews in restaurants. However, there is still very little daily consumption of kañiwa.

Novel Products. Andean ancient grains are increasingly valued as alternative ingredients for production of gluten-free foods for patients with celiac disease or those who are sensitive to gluten. Although Andean grain flours can be used in the preparation of foods that have both improved nutritional and sensory properties, the lack of gluten makes it technologically challenging to formulate products such as breads and pasta using these grains. Even so, there are strategies for replacing the functionality provided by gluten, which supports the formation of three-dimensional networks in bread and agglutination and elasticity in pasta. Such strategies include the use of hydrocolloids, proteins, fats, low molecular weight carbohydrates, emulsifiers, and enzymes (56).

Most of the gluten-free breads available in the marketplace are made from refined flours or pure starch, exhibiting low nutritional and sensory qualities (51). Andean grain flours represent an alternative to improve the quality of gluten-free breads. For example, it has been reported that the use of 50% whole grain quinoa flour or 50% amaranth flour in breads formulated with rice flour produces softer crumbs. This effect is due to the low level of amylose and high fat contents, which acts as a natural emulsifier, provided by these ancient grain flours (2). Popped amaranth flour can also be added in the formulation of gluten-free bread to improve the rheological properties of the dough, while avoiding the use of hydrocolloids. It has been shown that a blend of 60% popped amaranth flour and 40% raw amaranth flour can be used to produce a high-quality gluten-free bread (14). The amount of water used in the preparation of gluten-free bread is a critical parameter that influences specific volume, crumb texture, and cell density. Schoenlechner et al. (58) optimized water, protein (albumen), and fat in a gluten-free bread made with amaranth flour and a blend of maize and potato starch, rice flour, and locust bean gum. In this study, the best results were achieved by the addition of 80% water (percentage based on flour). The addition of albumen and fat improved texture and pore structure and, in particular, the sensory properties of the gluten-free bread. Quinoa white flour has also been shown to have positive effects on yeast dough development because of its high glucose content and alpha-glucosidase activity. Replacement of 40–100% of rice flour and corn with quinoa white flour increased the specific volume of bread by 33% (19). Additionally, it has recently been reported that the use of 12.5% quinoa or amaranth flour in gluten-free bread formulated with corn starch and rice flour significantly increases the protein, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and manganese contents of the bread (52).

Andean ancient grain flours also are used in the formulation of gluten-free pastas to improve textural, sensory, and nutritional properties. Gluten-free pasta usually is made with corn flour, rice flour, or starches and has low cooking quality, high cooking loss, low bite resistance, little or no elastic character, and low levels of fiber and micronutrients. Gluten-free pasta with texture firmness and cooking quality values that are acceptable and comparable to wheat-based pasta was developed by Schoenlechner et al. (57), using a blend of quinoa flour (20%), amaranth flour (20%), and buckwheat flour (60%), as well as 30% water, 6% egg albumen, and 1.2% emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides). Amaranth flour has also been used in mixtures with pregelatinized flour made from cassava starch and cassava bagasse, producing gluten-free pasta with textural properties similar to traditional wheat-based pasta. This pasta had two times the mineral content and six times the dietary fiber content of whole wheat pasta (20). Extrusion-cooking of amaranth and rice flours (120°C for 2 min) is another novel alternative for making a gluten-free pasta that is rich in minerals and fiber. A blend of amaranth flour (25%) and rice flour (75%) improves the firmness of the cooked pasta and decreases protein solubility, suggesting that the starch in the rice flour interacts best with amaranth proteins when starch gelatinization occurs simultaneously with protein denaturation in the extrusion-cooking process (13). It has also been shown that a mixture of 80% corn flour and 20% quinoa flour can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with higher dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, iron, and zinc contents (23).

Andean grains also show promise for the development of gluten-free extrudate products. Corn-based extrudates made with 20% quinoa flour, kiwicha, or kañiwa produced snack food products with an increased sectional expansion index and remarkable stability after exposure to high relative humidity (44). The sensory characteristics of snack products made with Andean grains are different from traditional versions. The textural changes in snack food products made with different of quinoa, kiwicha, and kañiwa contents (20, 35, and 50% of solids) were investigated, and these Andean grains showed an increase in the disruption of internal structures, leading to smaller pores, increased perceived hardness, and reduced crispiness and crunchiness (45).

Uses in Gastronomy. Due to their characteristic aromas, unique textures, and nutritional properties, Andean ancient grains are being used in cuisines around the world to formulate nutritious dishes. Quinoa is the grain that has attracted the greatest attention from chefs. For example, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has published a book titled International Cookbook for Quinoa, which includes more than 60 recipes for traditional and innovative dishes prepared by renowned chefs from around the world (53). In addition, a recent publication describes the use of quinoa in Turkish cuisine, showing that it can be added in various types of salads and that its flour can be used in various desserts (15). Currently, within the PROTEIN2FOOD Project, funded by the EU Horizon 2020 Program, innovative research and development is leading to the creation of highly nutritious dishes made with Andean grains such as quinoa, kiwicha, kañiwa, and tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis). Researchers from the Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Cultivos Andinos (CIINCA) of the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), together with renowned Peruvian Chef Flavio Solorzano, are responsible for performing this work, selecting the appropriate varieties of Andean grains for different beverages, appetizers, main dishes, and desserts. Samples of recipes developed by the PROTEIN2FOOD Project are shown in Figure 3.

Research Trends

Due to their functionality, different aspects of the components of Andean ancient grains are being investigated. One of these aspects is their use in traditional food products to improve nutritional quality. Kañiwa is a promising grain in this respect, arousing interest from both consumers and researchers due to its nutritional value, which is even higher than that of quinoa. Recent research has reported that up to 20% of wheat flour can be replaced with kañiwa flour, increasing the fiber and protein contents significantly without affecting pasta quality (12). It has also been reported that fresh, high-quality pasta and gnocchi can be made with quinoa flour (8.42%) and kiwicha flour (8.40%) due to lower cooking loss and high water absorption (11). The inclusion of quinoa and kiwicha flours in the formulation of gluten-free products also is being investigated from textural and rheological perspectives. Recent studies have demonstrated the technological functionality of these flours when included in the formulation of cakes, pastas, and snack foods (8,34,63).

Andean grain flours have been tested in gluten-free breads with the aim of improving their nutritional and textural properties (67). The results of this recent investigation are promising, because the experiments showed it was possible to maintain dough textural properties by including 12% quinoa, kiwicha, or kañiwa flours; 88% potato starch; 110% water; and 2% xanthan gum. The finished products showed good specific volume and alveolar structure (Fig. 4). The new formulations with Andean grain flours produced softer crumbs and longer shelf lives than the control bread made with potato starch.

The effects of processing on Andean grains are also being investigated, including the effects of abrasive milling of quinoa on its nutritional components (18) and the effects of germination on the physicochemical, functional, and nutritional properties of amaranth (17,41). Recently, it has been reported that the kiwicha popping process improves the bioavailability of calcium and iron (10). There is special interest regarding the protein quality of Andean grains, and it has recently been reported that cooking methods, such as boiling and steaming, do not affect the amino acid profile. However, malting of amaranth has been shown to increase the content of some amino acids, such as lysine, leucine, and valine. In quinoa, almost all amino acids significantly increased after the malting process (36).

Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria has recently been reported as a means of increasing the phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of cooked quinoa grains (50), and there is currently interest in bioactive peptides from Andean grains. Recent reports have shown that some peptide fractions of hydrolysates of kañiwa protein concentrate have antioxidant activity and are inhibitory to the angiotensin I converting enzyme (16). Quinoa and amaranth protein hydrolysates have antihemolytic and antimicrobial properties (37). Water-soluble proteins extracted from quinoa and amaranth have also been studied for their ability to achieve oxidative and physical stability of oil-in-water emulsions. Although the results were lower than for a commercial emulsifier, deamidation and enzymatic modifications of proteins might improve these properties (26).

Quinoa protein is also being used in the development of edible films, because it has been shown that it interacts with chitosan and can improve the mechanical properties of these films (1). Additionally, quinoa starch can be used to develop active biofilms after incorporation of gold nanoparticles, which improve mechanical, optical, and morphological properties and maintain unaltered thermal and barrier properties. These biofilms also exhibit strong antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (40).

Saponins have immunostimulatory, hypocholesterolemic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities. However, they are poorly absorbed during digestion and exhibit low bioavailability. In contrast, most sapogenins have demonstrated superior bioavailability due to more favorable chemical properties caused by the lack of a sugar chain. A recent study showed that acid hydrolysis of quinoa extracts for 1 hr caused the complete disappearance of saponins and greater release of sapogenins (29).

Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound, are being applied to evaluate changes in functionality provided by quinoa starch, as well as by its proteins. The application of ultrasound affects the functionality of quinoa flour, modifying its pasting and thermal properties, and may increase the digestibility of the starch (69). It has also been reported that ultrasound can produce conformational changes and increase the solubility of quinoa protein, enabling its use as an ingredient that is a good source of protein in the development of different types of beverage or sauces (66).

Near-infrared spectroscopy technology is also being studied as a potentially rapid method for the determination of vitamin E and antioxidant properties in quinoa (35). A recent study reported on the feasibility of using this technology in combination with pattern recognition analysis to authenticate quinoa, amaranth, and kañiwa flours (62).

Conclusions

The Andean native grains quinoa, amaranth, and kañiwa have been a very important part of the diets of Andean people in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador since ancient times. Recently, their cultivation and use has extended to the rest of the world. These grains have very high nutritional value, providing high-quality proteins, fats, and dietary fiber. The contents of minerals and certain vitamins in Andean grains also are remarkable. In addition, they are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, phytosterols, and tocopherols. Traditionally these grains have been used in soups and stews, and they have been milled into flour for beverages and porridges. Today, the food industry is using Andean grains to develop novel products, such as enriched and gluten-free breads and pasta products and beverages. Quinoa, amaranth, and kañiwa also are an excellent source of ingredients that could be used in the development of nutritious and tasty fine cuisine dishes by the culinary industry. Finally, several new nutritional properties and uses for Andean native grains have been discovered recently by researchers in different parts of the world.

Acknowledgments

We thank the PROTEIN2FOOD Project (EE Horizon 2020 Program) for financial support of this research.


 

Ritva Repo-Carrasco-Valencia (Ph.D. degree in food chemistry, University of Turku; M.S. degrees in cereal chemistry and technology, University of Helsinki) has been passionate about Andean native grains since she first learned about them in the 1980s while living in Cusco, Peru, the capital of the Inca Empire. Through her research, she has raised awareness of the numerous nutritional benefits of quinoa, amaranth, kañiwa, and tarwi (Andean lupin). Although consumed by indigenous peoples for centuries, these grains had been shunned by the wider Peruvian population in favor of Western diets for most of the past century. Today, their high nutritional value is better understood, and quinoa is now ubiquitous in health stores worldwide. Ritva is currently a professor and research scientist at the National Agrarian University La Molina (UNALM), in Lima, Peru. She is director of the Center of Innovation for Andean Grains at UNALM and leads various international research projects, among these is the EU-funded PROTEIN2FOOD (P2F) Project, which aims to develop innovative, cost-effective, and resource-efficient plant proteins. In 2017, Ritva was awarded the Order of the Lion of Finland in recognition of her work. E-mail: ritva@lamolina.edu.pe; Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ritva.repo; Twitter: https://twitter.com/repo_ritva.

Julio Mauricio Vidaurre-Ruiz holds an M.S. degree in food technology, and he is currently a Ph.D. candidate in food science at the National Agrarian University La Molina (UNALM) of Peru. He works as a research scientist at the Center of Innovation for Andean Grains (CIINCA). Prior to joining CIINCA, Julio was a professor at the University of Señor de Sipan in Lambayeque in northern Peru. His research focuses on gluten-free breads using Andean grain flours, such as quinoa, kiwicha (amaranth), and tarwi (Andean lupin), and natural hydrocolloids, such as tara and locust bean gums. E-mail: vidaurrrejm@lamolina.edu.pe; Twitter: https://twitter.com/JulioVidaurreR1.

 

 

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