Print To PDF
Wheat Preprocessing Methods to Improve Nutritional and Technological Functionality
Anne Vissers,1 Michael Adams, and Gary Tucker
© 2019 AACC International, Inc.
All wheat-based products require preprocessing of the grain before they can be used as food ingredients. Preprocessing techniques, both physical and biochemical, affect the nutritional value and techno-functionality of wheat in different ways and are the subject of this review. Physical techniques, such as milling, dry heating, and extrusion, improve the nutritional properties of wheat by increasing the digestibility of starches and proteins. However, care needs to be taken to not induce extensive protein cross-linking or damage heat-sensitive vitamins when using these methods. Biochemical methods, such as enzyme treatments, sprouting, and fermentation, are less harsh. These methods also can increase the nutritional value of wheat: micronutrients (e.g., vitamin levels, mineral bioavailability) especially benefit from biochemical treatments. With regard to techno-functional properties, physical treatments increase functionality by improving the baking properties of flour (e.g., starch gelatinization). Sprouting and fermentation treatments can be less beneficial due to increased enzyme activity, which can be challenging to control. Enzyme activity that is too high results in poor bread quality. Most of the research on the techno-functionality of wheat has focused on bread applications, while other bakery products, such as cake, have not been investigated as thoroughly. These types of products, however, also could benefit from pretreatment to create products with higher nutritional values while maintaining desired eating qualities.
Trying to reach content?
View Full Article
if you don't have access, become a member
- Agrahar-Murugkar, D., Zaidi, A., and Dwivedi, S. Quality of nixtamalized, sprouted and baked multigrain chips. Nutr. Food Sci. 48:453, 2018.
- Alava, J. M., Sahi, S. S., García-Alvarez, J., Turó, A., Chávez, J. A., García, M. J., and Salazar, J. Use of ultrasound for the determination of flour quality. Ultrasonics 46:270, 2007.
- Aslam, M. F., Ellis, P. R., Berry, S. E., Latunde-Dada, G. O., and Sharp, P. A. Enhancing mineral bioavailability from cereals: Current strategies and future perspectives. Nutr. Bull. 43:184, 2018.
- Batifoulier, F., Verny, M.-A., Chanliaud, E., Rémésy, C., and Demigné, C. Effect of different breadmaking methods on thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine contents of wheat bread. J. Cereal Sci. 42:101, 2005.
- Cai, W., and Diosady, L. L. Model for gelatinization of wheat starch in a twin-screw extruder. J. Food Sci. 58:872, 1993.
- Cai, W., Diosady, L. L., and Rubin, L. J. Degradation of wheat starch in a twin-screw extruder. J. Food Eng. 26:289, 1995.
- Cauvain, S., and Young, L. The role of water in the formation and processing of bread doughs. Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality—Water Control and Effects, 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, U.K., 2008.
- Chemat, F., Huma, Z., and Khan, M. K. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrason. Sonochem. 18:813, 2011.
- Chen, X., He, X., Fu, X., and Huang, Q. In vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of wheat starch/flour modified by heat-moisture treatment. J. Cereal Sc. 63:109, 2015.
- Christiansen, K., and Xiang, Y. Process for making sprouted whole grains and products comprising sprouted whole grains. Patent WO 2015/021025 A1, 2015.
- Dencic, S., DePauw, R., Kobilijski, B., and Momcilovic, V. Hagberg falling number and rheological properties of wheat cultivars in wet and dry preharvest periods. Plant Prod. Sci. 16:342, 2013.
- Eliasson, A.-C., and Larsson, K. Physicochemical behaviour of the components of wheat flour. Page 31 in: Cereals in Breadmaking. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 1993.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. World food situation. FAO cereal supply and demand brief. Published online at www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en. FAO, Rome, Italy, 2018.
- Food Fortification Initiative. Global progress of industrially milled cereal grain fortification. Published online at www.ffinetwork.org/global_progress. FFI, Atlanta, GA, 2019.
- Gómez, M., Jiménez, S., Ruiz, E., and Oliete, B. Effect of extruded wheat bran on dough rheology and bread quality. LWT 44:2231, 2011.
- Gorissen, S. H. M., Crombag, J. J. R., Senden, J. M. G., Waterval, W. A. H., Bierau, J., Verdijk, L. B., and van Loon, L. J. C. Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates. Amino Acids 50:1685, 2018.
- Gough, B. M., Whitehouse, M. E., Greenwood, C. T., and Miller, B. S. The role and function of chlorine in the preparation of high-ratio cake flour. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 10:91, 1978.
- Gusek, T. W. Microwave treatment of unchlorinated cake flour. U.S. patent 5389388A, 1994.
- Guy, R. C. E., Skinner, K., and Sahi, S. S. Effects of manufacturing processes on the properties of starch: Heat-treated flours and starches. Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden, U.K., 2007.
- Han, Z., Zeng, X., Zhang, B., and Yu, S. Effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment on the properties of corn starch. J. Food Eng. 93:318, 2009.
- Hussain, A., Larsson, H., Kuktaite, R., and Johansson, E. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: Contribution to daily minerals intake. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7:3442, 2010.
- Jackson, D. S., and Sahai, D. Enzymatic process for nixtamalization of cereal grains. U.S. patent 6,428,828 B1, 2002.
- Jideani, A. J., Owusu Apenten, R. K., and Muller, H. G. The effect of cooking on proteins from acha (Digitaria exilis) and durum wheat. J. Sci. Food Agric. 65:465, 1994.
- Jones, J. M., Adams, J., Harriman, C., Miller, C., and Van der Kamp, J. W. Nutritional impacts of different whole grain milling techniques: A review of milling practices and existing data. Cereal Foods World 60:130, 2015.
- Keppler, S. Dry heat treatment of flour: Addressing quality and safety implications. Ph.D. thesis. Available online at https://etheses.bham.ac.uk/id/eprint/7586/1/Keppler17PhD.pdf. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, U.K., 2017.
- Keppler, S., Bakalis, S., Leadley, C. E., Sahi, S. S., and Fryer, P. J. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes. Food Res. Int. 107:360, 2018.
- Larsson, M., Rossander-Hulthén, L., Sandström, B., and Sandberg, A. S. Improved zinc and iron absorption from breakfast meals containing malted oats with reduced phytate content. Br. J. Nutr. 76:677, 1996.
- Lemmens, E., Moroni, A. V., Pagand, J., Heirbaut, P., Ritala, A., et al. Impact of cereal seed sprouting on its nutritional and technological properties: A critical review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 18:305, 2019.
- Liljeberg, H. G. M., Lonner, C. H., and Bjorck, I. M. E. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. Hum. Clin. Nutr. 125:1503, 1995.
- Liu, Y. Y., Zeng, X. A., Deng, Z., Yu, S. J., and Yamasaki, S. Effect of pulsed electric field on the secondary structure and thermal properties of soy protein isolate. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 233:841, 2011.
- Lopez, H. W., Duclos, V., Coudray, C., Krespine, V., Feillet-Coudray, C., Messager, A., Demigné, C., and Rémésy, C. Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats. Nutr. 19:524, 2003.
- Majzoobi, M., Seifzadeh, N., Farahnaky, A., and Mesbahi, G. Effects of sonication on physical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches. J. Texture Stud. 46:105, 2015.
- Mann, J., Schiedt, B., Baumann, A., Conde-Petit, B., and Vilgis, T. A. Effect of heat treatment on wheat dough rheology and wheat protein solubility. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 20:341, 2014.
- Mariotti, M., Alamprese, C., Pagani, M. A., and Lucisano, M. Effect of puffing on ultrastructure and physical characteristics of cereal grains and flours. J. Cereal Sci. 43:47, 2006.
- Marti, A., Cardone, G., Nicolodi, A., Quaglia, L., and Pagani, M. A. Sprouted wheat as an alternative to conventional flour improvers in bread-making. LWT 80:230, 2017.
- Martinez, M. M., Oliete, B., and Gomez, M. Effect of the addition of extruded wheat flours on dough rheology and bread quality. J. Cereal Sci. 57:424, 2013.
- Mason, W. R., and Hoseney, R. C. Factors affecting the viscosity of extrusion-cooked wheat starch. Cereal Chem. 63:436, 1986.
- Maya-Cortés, D. C., de Dios Figueroa Cárdenas, J., Garnica-Romo, M. G., Alfaro Cuevas-Villanueva, R., Cortés-Martínez, R., Véles-Medina, J. J., and Martínez-Flores, H. E. Whole-grain corn tortilla prepared using an ecological nixtamalisation process and its impact on the nutritional value. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45:23, 2010.
- Messia, M. C., Reale, A., Maiuro, L., Candigliota, T., Sorrentino, E., and Marconi, E. Effects of pre-fermented wheat bran on dough and bread characteristics. J. Cereal Sci. 69:138, 2016.
- Mohamed, M. E. A., and Amer Eissa, A. H. Pulsed electric fields for food processing technology. A. H. Amer Eissa, ed. Structure and Function in Food Engineering. Published online at www.intechopen.com/books/structure-and-function-of-food-engineering/pulsed-electric-fields-for-food-processing-technology. IntechOpen Ltd., London, U.K., 2012.
- Neill, G., Al-Muhtaseb, A. H., and Magee, T. R. A. Optimisation of time/temperature treatment, for heat treated soft wheat flour. J. Food Eng. 113:422, 2012.
- Noda, T., Takigawa, S., Matsuura-Endo, C., Suzuki, T., Hashimoto, N., Kottearachchi, N. S., Yamauchi H., and Zaidul, I. S. Factors affecting the digestibility of raw and gelatinized potato starches. Food Chem. 110:465, 2008.
- Orskov, E. R., and Greenhalgh, J. F. D. Alkali treatment as a method of processing whole grain for cattle. J. Agric. Sci. 89:253, 1977.
- O’Sullivan, J., Park, M., and Beevers, J. The effect of ultrasound upon the physicochemical and emulsifying properties of wheat and soy protein isolates. J. Cereal Sci. 69:77, 2016.
- Pasini, G., Simonato, B., Giannattasio, M., Peruffo, A. D., and Curioni, A. Modifications of wheat flour proteins during in vitro digestion of bread dough, crumb and crust: An electrophoretic and immunological study. 49:2254, 2001.
- Piironen, V., Lampi, A.-M., Ekholm, P., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., and Liukkonen, K.-H. Micronutrients and phytochemicals in wheat grain. Page 179 in: Wheat—Chemistry and Technology, 4th ed. K. Khan and P. R. Shewry, eds. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, 2009.
- Plaza, L., de Ancos, B., and Pilar Cano, M. Nutritional and health-related compounds in sprouts and seeds of soybean (Glycine max), wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) treated by a new drying method. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 216:138, 2003.
- Poutanen, K. Enzymes: An important tool in the improvement of the quality of cereal foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8:300, 1997.
- Poutanen, K., Flander, L., and Katina, K. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective. Food Microbiol. 26:693, 2009.
- Qu, C., Wang, H., Liu, S., Wang, F., and Liu, C. Effects of microwave heating of wheat on its functional properties and accelerated storage. J. Food Sci. Technol. 54:3699, 2017.
- Riaz, M. N. Extrusion of cereals. Published online at www.newfoodmagazine.com/article/2515/extrusion-of-cereals. New Food Mag., August 26, 2010.
- Richter, K., Christiansen, K., and Guo, G. Wheat sprouting enhances bread baking performance. Cereal Foods World 59:231, 2014.
- Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Katina, K., and Autio, K. Effects of bran fermentation on quality and microstructure of high-fibre wheat bread. Cereal Chem. 78:429, 2001.
- Seguchi, M., and Yamada, Y. Hydrophobic character of heat-treated wheat starch. Cereal Chem. 65:375, 1988.
- Shewry, P. R., D’Ovidio, R., Lafiandra, D., Jenkins, J. A., Mills, E. N. C., and Békés, F. Wheat grain proteins. Page 223 in: Wheat—Chemistry and Technology, 4th ed. K. Khan and P. R. Shewry, eds. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, 2009.
- Singh, S., Gamlath, S., and Wakeling, L. Nutritional aspects of food extrusion: A review. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 42:916, 2007.
- Stone, B., and Morell, M. K. Carbohydrates. Page 299 in: Wheat—Chemistry and Technology, 4th ed. K. Khan and P. R. Shewry, eds. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, 2009.
- Sudha, M. L., Soumaya, C., and Prabhasankar, P. Use of dry-moist heat effects to improve functionality, immunogenicity of whole wheat flour and its application in bread making. J. Cereal Sci. 69:313, 2016.
- Thomasson, C. A., Miller, R. A., and Hoseney, R. C. Replacement of chorine treatment for cake flour. Cereal Chem. 72:616, 1995.
- Tsukada, H., Takano, K., Hattori, M., Yoshida, T., Kanuma, S., and Takahashi, K. Effect of sorbed water on the thermal stability of soybean protein. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70:2096, 2006.
- Vázquez, L., Vizcarra, M., Salazar, A., Castillo, A., and Guerrero, I. Effect of heat treatment on the industrial quality of two varieties of Mexican wheat. Int. J. Food Prop. 4:419, 2001.
- Vitaglione, P., Napolitano, A., and Fogliano, V. Cereal dietary fibre: A natural functional ingredient to deliver phenolic compounds into the gut. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 19:451, 2009.
- Wootton, M., and Chaudhry, M. A. Gelatinization and in vitro digestibility of starch in baked foods. J. Food Sci. 45:1783, 2006.
- Yang, F., Basu, T. K., and Ooraikul, B. Studies on germination conditions and antioxidant contents of wheat grain. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 52:319, 2001.
- Young, V. R., and Pellett, P. L. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59:1203S, 1994.
- Zhong, Y., Nyman, M., and Fak, F. Modulation of gut microbiota in rats fed high-fat diets by processing whole-grain barley to barley malt. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 59:2066, 2015.