Kshirod R. Bhattacharya, Rice Research and Development Centre, Mysore, India
RICE: Chemistry and Technology, Third Edition
Paddy, or rough rice, is unique among cereals in that it is, by and large, milled as whole grain, not flour. It is also unique in that milled rice can be of two forms. In most parts of the world it is used as white, or raw (meaning nonparboiled), rice. In other parts, it is used as parboiled rice, obtained by treating paddy rice with water and heat before it is dried and milled.
Parboiled rice is the major staple throughout South Asia (the Indian subcontinent), where over 90% of the world's parboiled rice is produced and consumed. All or most of the rice in Bangladesh (Roy, 2001), Sri Lanka (Malkanthi et al, 2001), and many rice-growing states of present-day India is parboiled; 55–60% of India's rice and a substantial portion in Nepal is parboiled (Fig. 1). It also is eaten widely elsewhere, as is discussed below. It is estimated that as much as a fifth of the world's rice is parboiled (Kik and Williams, 1945; Tata, 1962; Gariboldi, 1974). Use of parboiled rice seems to have been increasing in recent times.