Principles of Cereal Science and Technology, Third Edition
The diversity of chemically leavened wheat products made from wheat flour is truly amazing. Such products include cookies (biscuits), cakes, crackers, and pretzels, with wide variation within each of these groups. Cookies not only vary in appearance and taste but also in the type of processing needed to produce desirable products.
In North America, chemically leavened products are, for the most part, made from flour from soft wheats (North American terminology is used in this chapter; see Chapter 1). However, small levels of yeast may be used in some pretzel formulas. In Europe, where no wheats as soft as the typical North American soft wheats are available, wheats of harder texture are the logical raw material. However, the factors that make hard wheat hard apparently have an effect upon the texture of the products made from flour from such wheat. Thus, cookies made from flour from hard wheats are almost invariably harder in texture than the same products made from flour from soft wheats.