Principles of Cereal Science and Technology, Third Edition
Doughs and batters are complex mixtures of many ingredients. Their complexity results not only from their chemical composition but also from their physical properties. These physical properties are extremely important, as they determine not only the processing properties of doughs and batters in both artisan and industrial environments but also the quality of the final products.
Attempts to describe the physical properties of doughs and batters have resulted in the design of many rheological devices. Some of these instruments were designed to determine, for instance, the amount of mixing that dough requires or the amount of water that should be added to the flour to obtain dough of the desired consistency. They are also used to characterize the various flours or other ingredients used and are especially important tools for developing flour specifications. Hence, it is appropriate to devote the present chapter to rheology, its application to doughs and batters, and the measurement of dough and batter rheological properties.